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      NPY and sbGnRH gene expression in juvenile and adult male Brazilian flounder Paralichthys orbignyanus Translated title: Expressão gênica do NPY e do sbGnRH em machos juvenis e adultos de linguado Paralichthys orbignyanus

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          Abstract

          The objective of this study was to evaluate neuropeptide Y (NPY) and sea bream gonadotropin-release hormone (sbGnRH) gene expression in juvenile and adult males of Brazilian flounder. Hypothalamuses from fish were sampled for total RNA extraction. After cDNA synthesis, real-time PCR was used to measure gene expression. NPY showed approximately 2-fold increases in their mRNA levels while sbGnRH showed 3-fold increases in adult fish. These results suggest that these peptides could be involved on hypothalamic regulation of Brazilian flounder sexual maturation.

          Translated abstract

          O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a expressão gênica do neuropeptídeo Y (NPY) e da variante sea bream do hormônio liberador de gonadotrofinas (sbGnRH) em linguados machos juvenis e adultos. O hipotálamo foi isolado para a extração de RNA total. Após a síntese de cDNA, a PCR em tempo real foi usada para avaliar a expressão gênica. Foi observado um aumento de aproximadamente duas vezes nos níveis de NPY e de aproximadamente três vezes nos níveis de sbGnRH nos peixes adultos. Esses resultados demonstram que estes peptídeos podem estar envolvidos na regulação, via hipotálamo, da maturação sexual no linguado.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Relative expression software tool (REST) for group-wise comparison and statistical analysis of relative expression results in real-time PCR.

          Real-time reverse transcription followed by polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the most suitable method for the detection and quantification of mRNA. It offers high sensitivity, good reproducibility and a wide quantification range. Today, relative expression is increasingly used, where the expression of a target gene is standardised by a non-regulated reference gene. Several mathematical algorithms have been developed to compute an expression ratio, based on real-time PCR efficiency and the crossing point deviation of an unknown sample versus a control. But all published equations and available models for the calculation of relative expression ratio allow only for the determination of a single transcription difference between one control and one sample. Therefore a new software tool was established, named REST (relative expression software tool), which compares two groups, with up to 16 data points in a sample and 16 in a control group, for reference and up to four target genes. The mathematical model used is based on the PCR efficiencies and the mean crossing point deviation between the sample and control group. Subsequently, the expression ratio results of the four investigated transcripts are tested for significance by a randomisation test. Herein, development and application of REST is explained and the usefulness of relative expression in real-time PCR using REST is discussed. The latest software version of REST and examples for the correct use can be downloaded at http://www.wzw.tum.de/gene-quantification/.
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            Perspectives on fish gonadotropins and their receptors.

            Teleosts lack a hypophyseal portal system and hence neurohormones are carried by nerve fibers from the preoptic region to the pituitary. The various cell types in the teleost pituitary are organized in discrete domains. Fish possess two gonadotropins (GtH) similar to FSH and LH in other vertebrates; they are heterodimeric hormones that consist of a common alpha subunit non-covalently associated with a hormone-specific beta subunit. In recent years the availability of molecular cloning techniques allowed the isolation of the genes coding for the GtH subunits in 56 fish species representing at least 14 teleost orders. Advanced molecular engineering provides the technology to produce recombinant GtHs from isolated cDNAs. Various expression systems have been used for the production of recombinant proteins. Recombinant fish GtHs were produced for carp, seabream, channel and African catfish, goldfish, eel, tilapia, zebrafish, Manchurian trout and Orange-spotted grouper. The hypothalamus in fishes exerts its regulation on the release of the GtHs via several neurohormones such as GnRH, dopamine, GABA, PACAP, IGF-I, norepinephrine, NPY, kisspeptin, leptin and ghrelin. In addition, gonadal steroids and peptides exert their effects on the gonadotropins either directly or via the hypothalamus. All these are discussed in detail in this review. In mammals, the biological activities of FSH and LH are directed to different gonadal target cells through the cell-specific expression of the FSH receptor (FSHR) and LH receptor (LHR), respectively, and the interaction between each gonadotropin-receptor couple is highly selective. In contrast, the bioactivity of fish gonadotropins seems to be less specific as a result of promiscuous hormone-receptor interactions, while FSHR expression in Leydig cells explains the strong steroidogenic activity of FSH in certain fish species. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Effects of in vivo and in vitro administration of ghrelin, leptin and neuropeptide mediators on pulsatile gonadotrophin-releasing hormone secretion from male rat hypothalamus before and after puberty.

              The present study aimed to investigate the effects of leptin and ghrelin on pulsatile pulsatile gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion in vitro with emphasis on neuropeptide mediators and changes between prepuberty (15 days) and sexual maturity (50 days) in the male rat. When hypothalamic explants were studied 90 min after an intraperitoneal injection of leptin, ghrelin or agouti-related protein (AgRP) at 15 days, the GnRH interpulse interval (IPI) was significantly increased by ghrelin and AgRP and decreased by leptin. At 50 days, an increase in GnRH IPI was also caused by ghrelin and AgRP. When the peptides were directly incubated with the explants, the effects of leptin and AgRP in vitro were consistent with those seen after in vivo administration. By contrast, ghrelin resulted in a reduction of GnRH IPI and this was observed at 15 days only. To delineate the neuropeptide mediators of leptin and the effects of ghrelin in the hypothalamus, various hypothalamic neuropeptides and antagonists were used in vitro. At 15 days, the GnRH IPI was significantly decreased after incubation with cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) and neuropeptide Y (NPY). The reduction of GnRH IPI caused by leptin was partially prevented by either an anti-CART antiserum or SHU 9119, a melanocortin MC3/MC4 receptor antagonist or a CRF receptor antagonist. The NPY-Y5 receptor antagonist did not influence the effects of leptin whereas that antagonist totally prevented the decrease in GnRH IPI caused by ghrelin. The ghrelin-induced reduction of GnRH IPI was partially prevented by SHU 9119. When used alone, SHU 9119 or a CRF-receptor antagonist resulted in increased GnRH IPI at 50 days while they had no effects at 15 days. The NPY-Y5 receptor antagonist resulted in increased GnRH IPI at 15 and 50 days. In conclusion, leptin and ghrelin show opposing effects on pulsatile GnRH secretion after administration in vivo whereas they both have stimulatory effects in vitro. Such effects involve consistently the anorectic peptides CART and CRF for leptin that are mainly active at 15 days. The melanocortigenic system appears to mediate the effects of both leptin and ghrelin. The effects of ghrelin also involve NPY receptors and operate effectively before and at sexual maturity.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidade Federal de Pelotas Brazil
                [2 ] Universidade Federal do Rio Grande Brazil
                [3 ] Universidade Federal de Pelotas Brazil
                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                cr
                Ciência Rural
                Cienc. Rural
                Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (Santa Maria )
                1678-4596
                November 2011
                : 41
                : 11
                : 1927-1930
                S0103-84782011001100013 10.1590/S0103-84782011001100013

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Product
                Product Information: SciELO Brazil
                Categories
                AGRONOMY

                Horticulture

                sexual maturation, fish, Pleuronectiformes, mRNA, maturação sexual, peixes, RNAm

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