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      The porcine innate immune system: An update


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          • This review provides an updated overview of porcine innate immune system.

          • Porcine innate immune system is compared that of human and mouse.

          • The importance of the pig as model for human disease is underlined.


          Over the last few years, we have seen an increasing interest and demand for pigs in biomedical research. Domestic pigs ( Sus scrofa domesticus) are closely related to humans in terms of their anatomy, genetics, and physiology, and often are the model of choice for the assessment of novel vaccines and therapeutics in a preclinical stage. However, the pig as a model has much more to offer, and can serve as a model for many biomedical applications including aging research, medical imaging, and pharmaceutical studies to name a few. In this review, we will provide an overview of the innate immune system in pigs, describe its anatomical and physiological key features, and discuss the key players involved. In particular, we compare the porcine innate immune system to that of humans, and emphasize on the importance of the pig as model for human disease.

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          Most cited references283

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          Alveolar macrophages: plasticity in a tissue-specific context.

          Alveolar macrophages exist in a unique microenvironment and, despite historical evidence showing that they are in close contact with the respiratory epithelium, have until recently been investigated in isolation. The microenvironment of the airway lumen has a considerable influence on many aspects of alveolar macrophage phenotype, function and turnover. As the lungs adapt to environmental challenges, so too do alveolar macrophages adapt to accommodate the ever-changing needs of the tissue. In this Review, we discuss the unique characteristics of alveolar macrophages, the mechanisms that drive their adaptation and the direct and indirect influences of epithelial cells on them. We also highlight how airway luminal macrophages function as sentinels of a healthy state and how they do not respond in a pro-inflammatory manner to antigens that do not disrupt lung structure. The unique tissue location and function of alveolar macrophages distinguish them from other macrophage populations and suggest that it is important to classify macrophages according to the site that they occupy.
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            Swine as models in biomedical research and toxicology testing.

            Swine are considered to be one of the major animal species used in translational research, surgical models, and procedural training and are increasingly being used as an alternative to the dog or monkey as the choice of nonrodent species in preclinical toxicologic testing of pharmaceuticals. There are unique advantages to the use of swine in this setting given that they share with humans similar anatomic and physiologic characteristics involving the cardiovascular, urinary, integumentary, and digestive systems. However, the investigator needs to be familiar with important anatomic, histopathologic, and clinicopathologic features of the laboratory pig and minipig in order to put background lesions or xenobiotically induced toxicologic changes in their proper perspective and also needs to consider specific anatomic differences when using the pig as a surgical model. Ethical considerations, as well as the existence of significant amounts of background data, from a regulatory perspective, provide further support for the use of this species in experimental or pharmaceutical research studies. It is likely that pigs and minipigs will become an increasingly important animal model for research and pharmaceutical development applications.
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              Deciphering the transcriptional network of the DC lineage

              Although, much progress has been made in our understanding of DC ontogeny and function, the transcriptional regulation of DC lineage commitment and functional specialization in vivo is poorly understood. We performed a comprehensive comparative analysis of CD8+, CD103+, CD11b+, and plasmacytoid DC subsets and the recently identified Macrophage DC precursors and Common DC precursors across the entire immune system. Here we characterize candidate transcriptional activators involved in myeloid progenitor commitment to the DC lineage and predicted regulators of DC functional diversity in tissues. We identify a molecular signature that distinguishes tissue DC from macrophages. We also identify a transcriptional program expressed specifically during steady-state tissue DC migration to the draining lymph nodes that may control tolerance to self-tissue antigens.

                Author and article information

                Dev Comp Immunol
                Dev. Comp. Immunol
                Developmental and Comparative Immunology
                Elsevier Science
                4 April 2014
                August 2014
                4 April 2014
                : 45
                : 2
                : 321-343
                [a ]Institute of Immunology, Department of Pathobiology, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Veterinärplatz 1, 1210 Vienna, Austria
                [b ]Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization-International Vaccine Centre (VIDO-InterVac), University of Saskatchewan, 120 Veterinary Road, S7N 5E3 Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
                [c ]Institute of Virology and Immunoprophylaxis (IVI), Sensemattstrasse 293, 3147 Mittelhäusern, Switzerland
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 3069668874; fax: +1 3069667478. francois.meurens@ 123456usask.ca

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

                : 19 February 2014
                : 30 March 2014
                : 31 March 2014

                Developmental biology
                pig,innate response,animal model,innate immune cells
                Developmental biology
                pig, innate response, animal model, innate immune cells


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