28
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      Clinical Outcomes and Insulin Secretion After Islet Transplantation With the Edmonton Protocol

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPubMed
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Islet transplantation offers the prospect of good glycemic control without major surgical risks. After our initial report of successful islet transplantation, we now provide further data on 12 type 1 diabetic patients with brittle diabetes or problems with hypoglycemia previous to 1 November 2000. Details of metabolic control, acute complications associated with islet transplantation, and long-term complications related to immunosuppression therapy and diabetes were noted. Insulin secretion, both acute and over 30 min, was determined after intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTTs). The median follow-up was 10.2 months (CI 6.5-17.4), and the longest was 20 months. Glucose control was stable, with pretransplant fasting and meal tolerance-stimulated glucose levels of 12.5+/-1.9 and 20.0+/-2.7 mmol/l, respectively, but decreased significantly, with posttransplant levels of 6.3+/-0.3 and 7.5+/-0.6 mmol/l, respectively (P < 0.006). All patients have sustained insulin production, as evidenced by the most current baseline C-peptide levels 0.66+/-0.06 nmol/l, increasing to 1.29+/-0.25 nmol/l 90 min after the meal-tolerance test. The mean HbA1c level decreased from 8.3+/-0.5% to the current level of 5.8+/-0.1% (P < 0.001). Presently, four patients have normal glucose tolerance, five have impaired glucose tolerance, and three have post-islet transplant diabetes (two of whom need oral hypoglycemic agents and low-dose insulin (<10 U/day). Three patients had a temporary increase in their liver-function tests. One patient had a thrombosis of a peripheral branch of the right portal vein, and two of the early patients had bleeding from the hepatic needle puncture site; but these technical problems were resolved. Two patients had transient vitreous hemorrhages. The two patients with elevated creatinine levels pretransplant had a significant increase in serum creatinine in the long term, although the mean serum creatinine of the group was unchanged. The cholesterol increased in five patients, and lipid-lowering therapy was required for three patients. No patient has developed cytomegalovirus infection or disease, posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder, malignancies, or serious infection to date. None of the patients have been sensitized to donor antigen. In 11 of the 12 patients, insulin independence was achieved after 9,000 islet equivalents (IEs) per kilogram were transplanted. The acute insulin response and the insulin area under the curve (AUC) after IVGTT were consistently maintained over time. The insulin AUC from the IVGTT correlated to the number of islets transplanted, but more closely correlated when the cold ischemia time was taken into consideration (r = 0.83, P < 0.001). Islet transplantation has successfully corrected labile type 1 diabetes and problems with hypoglycemia, and our results show persistent insulin secretion. After a minimum of 9,000 IEs per kilogram are provided, insulin independence is usually attained. An elevation of creatinine appears to be a contraindication to this immunosuppressive regimen. For the subjects who had labile type 1 diabetes that was difficult to control, the risk-to-benefit ratio is in favor of islet transplantation.

          Related collections

          Most cited references24

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: not found
          • Article: not found

          Mean amplitude of glycemic excursions, a measure of diabetic instability.

            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: not found
            • Article: not found

            Islet isolation assessment in man and large animals

              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Interleukin-2-receptor blockade with daclizumab to prevent acute rejection in renal transplantation. Daclizumab Triple Therapy Study Group.

              Monoclonal antibodies that block the high-affinity interleukin-2 receptor expressed on alloantigen-reactive T lymphocytes may cause selective immunosuppression. Daclizumab is a genetically engineered human IgG1 monoclonal antibody that binds specifically to the alpha chain of the interleukin-2 receptor and may thus reduce the risk of rejection after renal transplantation. We administered daclizumab (1.0 mg per kilogram of body weight) or placebo intravenously before transplantation and once every other week afterward, for a total of five doses, to 260 patients receiving first cadaveric kidney grafts and immunosuppressive therapy with cyclosporine, azathioprine, and prednisone. The patients were followed at regular intervals for 12 months. The primary end point was the incidence of biopsy-confirmed acute rejection within six months after transplantation. Of the 126 patients given daclizumab, 28 (22 percent) had biopsy-confirmed episodes of acute rejection, as compared with 47 of the 134 patients (35 percent) who received placebo (P=0.03). Graft survival at 12 months was 95 percent in the daclizumab-treated patients, as compared with 90 percent in the patients given placebo (P=0.08). The patients given daclizumab did not have any adverse reactions to the drug, and at six months, there were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to infectious complications or cancers. The serum half-life of daclizumab was 20 days, and its administration resulted in prolonged saturation of interleukin-2alpha receptors on circulating lymphocytes. Daclizumab reduces the frequency of acute rejection in kidney-transplant recipients.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Diabetes
                Diabetes
                American Diabetes Association
                0012-1797
                1939-327X
                April 01 2001
                April 01 2001
                : 50
                : 4
                : 710-719
                Article
                10.2337/diabetes.50.4.710
                11289033
                a81443a0-7662-4569-ae81-faa5720621da
                © 2001

                Comments

                Comment on this article