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      Revisión y actualización en cirugía refractiva corneal Translated title: Review and updating in corneal refractive surgery

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          Este trabajo consiste en una revisión bibliográfica acerca de los procedimientos y técnicas quirúrgicas para la correción de ametropías que se encuentran actualmente en uso o en fase de investigación en el mundo, explicando los detalles más significativos de cada una. Su objetivo ha sido ofrecer a las generaciones de nuevos oftalmólogos una panorámica que les permita estar al tanto del decursar de la ciencia y de la tecnología mundiales puestas en manos de la Oftalmología.

          Translated abstract

          This paper constitutes a literature review of those surgical procedures and techniques in use or under research worlwide for the correction of ametropia. It explains the most significant details of each of them. Its objective is to provide the new generations of ophtalmologists with a general overview of these techniques that allow them to be acquainted with the latest world scientific and technological advances at the service of Ophtalmology.

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          Most cited references 63

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          Flap complications associated with lamellar refractive surgery.

          Corneal lamellar refractive surgery for myopia reduces the risk of corneal haze but adds to the risk of flap complications. We retrospectively determined the incidence of flap complications in the initial series of eyes undergoing lamellar refractive surgery by one surgeon. We assessed the incidence of flap complications overall, the trend in these complications during the surgeon's learning curve, and the impact of the complications on best spectacle-corrected visual acuity. Charts of the first 1,019 eyes that underwent myopic keratomileusis in situ or laser in situ keratomileusis were reviewed for flap complications and visual outcome. Of the 1,019 eyes, 490 eyes underwent myopic keratomileusis in situ, and 529 eyes underwent laser in situ keratomileusis. Eighty-eight (8.6%) of 1,019 eyes had flap-related complications. Six eyes had two complications. Intraoperative complications included irregular keratectomy in nine eyes (0.9%), incomplete keratectomy in three eyes (0.3%), and a free cap in 10 eyes (1.0%). The incidence of intraoperative complications was six (6.0%) in the first 100 consecutive eyes, 14 (2.3%) in the next 600 consecutive eyes (P = .04, chi-square test), and one (0.3%) in the last 300 eyes (P = .03, chi-square test). Postoperative complications included displaced flaps that required repositioning in 20 eyes (2.0%), folds in the flap that required repositioning in 11 eyes (1.1%), diffuse lamellar keratitis in 18 eyes (1.8%), infectious keratitis in one eye (0.1%), and epithelial ingrowth that required removal in 22 eyes (2.2%). The incidence of flap displacement and folds in 200 eyes in which we irrigated under the flap and allowed it to settle without further manipulation averaged 8.5%, whereas the incidence in other groups of 100 consecutive eyes averaged 0.8% (P < .00001, chi-square test). The incidence of diffuse lamellar keratitis was 0.2% in eyes that had undergone myopic keratomileusis in situ and 3.2% in eyes treated by laser in situ keratomileusis (P = .0003, chi-square test). No eye lost 2 or more lines of best spectacle-corrected visual acuity because of flap complications. Flap complications after lamellar refractive surgery are relatively common but rarely lead to a permanent decrease in visual acuity. Physician experience with the microkeratome and with the handling of the corneal flap decreases the incidence of flap complications.
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            Corneal haze development after PRK is regulated by volume of stromal tissue removal.

            To determine whether excimer laser transepithelial photoablation can reduce the initial keratocyte loss seen after manual epithelial debridement. Second, to establish the relationship between initial depth of keratocyte and stromal loss and the subsequent development of corneal haze. Five rabbits received a 5-mm diameter monocular epithelial debridement by manual scraping. An additional five rabbits received a 5-mm diameter excimer laser transepithelial photoablation to a preset (intended) depth of 60 microns to ensure complete epithelial removal and to generate a superficial stromal keratectomy in all corneas. At various times during a 3-month. period, animals were evaluated by in vivo confocal microscopy through focusing (CMTF), which generates a quantitative image intensity depth profile of the cornea that provides measurements of (i) depth of keratocyte loss, (ii) epithelial and stromal thickness, and (iii) backscattered light from the anterior cornea as an objective estimate of corneal haze. Manual epithelial debridement was associated with an initial loss of anterior stromal keratocytes to a depth of 108 +/- 14 microns that was followed by repopulation with migratory keratocytes. These cells showed increased reflectivity producing significant backscattering of light equivalent to clinical haze grade 1-2 (1,442 +/- 630 U) at 3 weeks. Furthermore, repopulation occurred without detectable inflammation and was associated with a rapid restoration of normal keratocyte morphology and reflectivity. Transepithelial photoablation induced complete epithelial debridement in all corneas in addition to a superficial stromal keratectomy of 14-44 microns. Photoablation induced 36% less initial keratocyte loss (69 +/- 19 microns) in the anterior stroma than manual debridement (p < 0.01) but was associated with intense concomitant inflammation. Photoablated corneas showed significantly more light backscattering (p < 0.01) compared with manually debrided corneas with a threefold increase at 3 weeks (4,397 +/- 1,367 U) and a sixfold increase at 3 months (1,483 +/- 1,172 compared with 234 +/- 91 U). Backscattering of light or haze increased proportionally with increasing stromal keratectomy depth (r = 0.95, p < 0.001) but was unrelated to depth of induced keratocyte death. The increased backscatter in photoablated corneas appeared related to (i) a more pronounced keratocyte repopulation response with a higher density and reflectivity of migratory fibroblasts and (ii) myofibroblast transformation after repopulation. Excimer laser transepithelial photoablation induced significantly less keratocyte loss than manual epithelial debridement; however, photoablation was followed by a more intense inflammatory response and a greater increase in backscattering of light (haze) that was associated with increased keratocyte activation and myofibroblast transformation. Most important, the magnitude of corneal wound repair and the development and duration of corneal haze increased proportionally with increasing stromal photoablation depth (i.e., the volume of stromal tissue removal) but were unrelated to depth of initial keratocyte loss.
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              Inflammatory response in the early stages of wound healing after excimer laser keratectomy.

              To evaluate the inflammatory response and its potential role in the early stages of corneal wound healing after excimer laser keratectomy. Lewis rats underwent excimer keratectomy using a 193-nm excimer laser. The central corneas were ablated in 3 depths: group A, epithelium; group B, superficial stroma; or group C, deep stroma. Eyes were harvested 1, 12, 24, and 36 hours, and 1 week after the rats were killed. Immunohistochemistry was used to test frozen sections with monoclonal antibodies of various inflammatory cellular markers. Reepithelialization was observed at 12 hours in group A, and at 24 hours in groups B and C. Regenerated epithelium covered the denuded corneal surface in groups B and C after 1 week. The expression of major histocompatibility complex II antigen was detected in infiltrating cells, corneal epithelial cells, and endothelial cells 1 hour after surgery. Only a few macrophages and Langerhans cells were in the limbus at baseline. Macrophages migrated from the limbus to the corneal ablation zone and increased 2-fold after 36 hours in all 3 groups compared with baseline. Occasional lymphocytic infiltration was identified after 25 to 36 hours. Macrophages play an active role in the wound healing after laser keratectomy and may contribute to transient corneal haze.

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                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Revista Cubana de Oftalmología
                Rev Cubana Oftalmol
                Editorial Ciencias Médicas (Ciudad de la Habana )
                December 1999
                : 12
                : 2
                : 0
                [1 ] Hospital Oftalmológico Docente Ramón Pando Ferrer Cuba
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                Ophthalmology & Optometry



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