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      Inflammatory markers and cardiovascular risks among overweight-obese Emirati women

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          Abstract

          Background

          The prevalence of abdominal obesity among women in UAE is exceptionally high. However, its impact on cardiovascular health has not been adequately investigated. The aims of this study were to investigate: (1) correlations between inflammatory and oxidative biomarkers vs. anthropometric and metabolic measures; (2) rates of dyslipidemia, diabetes, and hypertension and (3) risks of cardiovascular disease.

          Methods

          One hundred ten “healthy” overweight/obese Emirati women attending nutrition counselling clinics were randomly recruited. All participants had completed questionnaire, physical examination and laboratory assessment.

          Results

          The participants’ mean ± SD of age, body mass-index, waist circumference were 39 ± 9 years, 34 ± 6 kg/m 2 and 100 ± 13 cm respectively. Among the studied women 45 % met diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome showing a positive correlation of hsCRP with BMI ( p = 0.002), body fat ( p = 0.002) and waist circumference ( p = 0.018). There was positive correlation of IL-6 with waist circumference ( p = 0.019) and adiponectin with HDL ( p = 0.007). Prevalence of HDL <1.3 mmol/L or triglycerides ≥1.7 mmol/L were 82 %, dysglycemia 31 %, and hypertension 27 and 37 % of women had either ‘high’ or ‘moderate’ calculated cardiovascular 10-year risk score.

          Conclusion

          The levels of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers were highly prevalent among overweight/obese Emirati women and this may predispose to increasing cardiovascular risks at relatively young age. Thus effective strategies to impact cardiovascular burden and conducting outcome studies assessing the increased risk of cardiovascular disease and addressing obesity prevention among women are urgently needed.

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          Most cited references 27

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          Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: a joint interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society; and International Association for the Study of Obesity.

          A cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus, which occur together more often than by chance alone, have become known as the metabolic syndrome. The risk factors include raised blood pressure, dyslipidemia (raised triglycerides and lowered high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), raised fasting glucose, and central obesity. Various diagnostic criteria have been proposed by different organizations over the past decade. Most recently, these have come from the International Diabetes Federation and the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. The main difference concerns the measure for central obesity, with this being an obligatory component in the International Diabetes Federation definition, lower than in the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute criteria, and ethnic specific. The present article represents the outcome of a meeting between several major organizations in an attempt to unify criteria. It was agreed that there should not be an obligatory component, but that waist measurement would continue to be a useful preliminary screening tool. Three abnormal findings out of 5 would qualify a person for the metabolic syndrome. A single set of cut points would be used for all components except waist circumference, for which further work is required. In the interim, national or regional cut points for waist circumference can be used.
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            Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): case-control study.

            Although more than 80% of the global burden of cardiovascular disease occurs in low-income and middle-income countries, knowledge of the importance of risk factors is largely derived from developed countries. Therefore, the effect of such factors on risk of coronary heart disease in most regions of the world is unknown. We established a standardised case-control study of acute myocardial infarction in 52 countries, representing every inhabited continent. 15152 cases and 14820 controls were enrolled. The relation of smoking, history of hypertension or diabetes, waist/hip ratio, dietary patterns, physical activity, consumption of alcohol, blood apolipoproteins (Apo), and psychosocial factors to myocardial infarction are reported here. Odds ratios and their 99% CIs for the association of risk factors to myocardial infarction and their population attributable risks (PAR) were calculated. Smoking (odds ratio 2.87 for current vs never, PAR 35.7% for current and former vs never), raised ApoB/ApoA1 ratio (3.25 for top vs lowest quintile, PAR 49.2% for top four quintiles vs lowest quintile), history of hypertension (1.91, PAR 17.9%), diabetes (2.37, PAR 9.9%), abdominal obesity (1.12 for top vs lowest tertile and 1.62 for middle vs lowest tertile, PAR 20.1% for top two tertiles vs lowest tertile), psychosocial factors (2.67, PAR 32.5%), daily consumption of fruits and vegetables (0.70, PAR 13.7% for lack of daily consumption), regular alcohol consumption (0.91, PAR 6.7%), and regular physical activity (0.86, PAR 12.2%), were all significantly related to acute myocardial infarction (p<0.0001 for all risk factors and p=0.03 for alcohol). These associations were noted in men and women, old and young, and in all regions of the world. Collectively, these nine risk factors accounted for 90% of the PAR in men and 94% in women. Abnormal lipids, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, abdominal obesity, psychosocial factors, consumption of fruits, vegetables, and alcohol, and regular physical activity account for most of the risk of myocardial infarction worldwide in both sexes and at all ages in all regions. This finding suggests that approaches to prevention can be based on similar principles worldwide and have the potential to prevent most premature cases of myocardial infarction.
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              2013 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol to Reduce Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk in Adults

              Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [ ]Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, UAE University, P.O. Box 17666, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates
                [ ]Department of Nutrition and Health, UAE University, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates
                [ ]Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, UAE University, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates
                Contributors
                j.kaabi@uaeu.ac.ae
                s.gariballa@uaeu.ac.ae
                charusharma@uaeu.ac.ae
                javed.yasin@uaeu.ac.ae
                a.alessa@uaeu.ac.ae
                HabAli@uaeu.ac.ae
                a.souid@uaeu.ac.ae
                Journal
                BMC Res Notes
                BMC Res Notes
                BMC Research Notes
                BioMed Central (London )
                1756-0500
                20 July 2016
                20 July 2016
                2016
                : 9
                2160
                10.1186/s13104-016-2160-x
                4955260
                27440160
                © The Author(s) 2016

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funding
                Funded by: Sheikh Hamdan bin Rashid Al Maktoum Award for Medical Sciences.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2016

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