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      Characterization of Differential Gene Expression in Quiescent and Invasive Human Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells

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          Abstract

          Proliferation, migration and invasion of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are essential pathogenic processes in the development of a broad spectrum of cardiovascular disorders, like arteriosclerosis, restenosis after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stent implantation as well as transplant vessel disease. As an in vitro model mimicking these processes, the Boyden chamber was employed to characterize the diverging migratory and invasive potentials of proliferating and nonproliferating human arterial SMCs (haSMCs). Using this model, differential gene expression of both phenotypes was analyzed by a cDNA array system (Clontech human cardiovascular array). With these arrays, 558 cardiovascular-associated genes could be compared. Further, gene expression was exactly quantified by real-time RT-PCR. Protein expression was analyzed by ELISA and Western blotting. In total, 47 genes were differentially expressed more than 1.5 times. Most of the differentially regulated genes in this study were associated with the extracellular matrix (ECM) and cell motility. In detail, the respective groups were matrix-organizing proteins, ECM proteins, cell adhesion proteins, extracellular communication and cytoskeleton motility proteins. Genes known to be differentially regulated during haSMC migration and invasion, like TIMP 2, TIMP 3, and MMP 3, were confirmed by the array data. Reduced expression of several cytoskeletal proteins, like vimentin, fibronectin, cytokeratins and β1 integrin, was shown in the invasive phenotype. Further, angio-associated protein, alpha E-catenin and atrial brain natriuretic peptide receptor were downregulated whereas TFPI 2 was strongly upregulated in invasive haSMCs. In conclusion, several relevant potential candidate genes for the quiescent and the invasive SMC phenotype were identified and genes already known to be differentially regulated by previous analysis were confirmed.

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          Most cited references 8

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          Systematic determination of genetic network architecture.

          Technologies to measure whole-genome mRNA abundances and methods to organize and display such data are emerging as valuable tools for systems-level exploration of transcriptional regulatory networks. For instance, it has been shown that mRNA data from 118 genes, measured at several time points in the developing hindbrain of mice, can be hierarchically clustered into various patterns (or 'waves') whose members tend to participate in common processes. We have previously shown that hierarchical clustering can group together genes whose cis-regulatory elements are bound by the same proteins in vivo. Hierarchical clustering has also been used to organize genes into hierarchical dendograms on the basis of their expression across multiple growth conditions. The application of Fourier analysis to synchronized yeast mRNA expression data has identified cell-cycle periodic genes, many of which have expected cis-regulatory elements. Here we apply a systematic set of statistical algorithms, based on whole-genome mRNA data, partitional clustering and motif discovery, to identify transcriptional regulatory sub-networks in yeast-without any a priori knowledge of their structure or any assumptions about their dynamics. This approach uncovered new regulons (sets of co-regulated genes) and their putative cis-regulatory elements. We used statistical characterization of known regulons and motifs to derive criteria by which we infer the biological significance of newly discovered regulons and motifs. Our approach holds promise for the rapid elucidation of genetic network architecture in sequenced organisms in which little biology is known.
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            Interpreting patterns of gene expression with self-organizing maps: Methods and application to hematopoietic differentiation

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              Ligand occupancy of the alpha-V-beta3 integrin is necessary for smooth muscle cells to migrate in response to insulin-like growth factor.

              Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) have been shown to migrate in response to insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). However, the mechanism mediating this response has not been determined. The migration rates of porcine and human vascular SMCs were assessed in a monolayer wounding assay. IGF-I and IGF-II induced increases of 141% and 97%, respectively, in the number of cells that migrated in 4 days. The presence of 0.2% fetal bovine serum in the culture medium was necessary for the IGFs to stimulate migration over uncoated plastic surfaces. However, if vitronectin was used as the substratum, IGF-I stimulated migration by 162% even in the absence of serum. To determine the role of integrins in mediating this migration, SMC surface proteins were labeled with 125I and immunoprecipitated with specific anti-integrin antibodies. Integrins containing alpha-V (vitronectin receptor), alpha5 (fibronectin receptor), and alpha3 (collagen/laminin receptor) subunits were the most abundant. IGF-I treatment caused a 73% reduction in alpha5-integrin subunit protein and a 25% increase in alpha-V subunit. More importantly, ligand binding of alpha-V-beta3 was increased by 2.4-fold. We therefore examined whether the function of the alpha-V-beta3 integrin was important for IGF-I-mediated migration. The disintegrin kistrin was shown by affinity crosslinking to specifically bind with high affinity to alpha-V-beta3 and not to alpha5-beta1 or other abundant integrins. The related disintegrin echistatin specifically inhibited 125I-labeled kistrin binding to alpha-V-beta3, while a structurally distinct disintegrin, decorsin, had 1000-fold lower affinity. The addition of increasing concentrations of either kistrin or echistatin inhibited IGF-I-induced migration, whereas decorsin had a minimal effect. The potency of these disintegrins in inhibiting IGF-I-induced migration paralleled their apparent affinity for the alpha-V integrin. Furthermore, an alpha-V-beta3 blocking antibody inhibited SMC migration by 80%. In summary, vitronectin receptor activation is a necessary component of IGF-I-mediated stimulation of smooth muscle migration, and alpha-V-beta3 integrin antagonists appear to be important reagents for modulating this process.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2002
                August 2002
                12 August 2002
                : 39
                : 4
                : 340-352
                Affiliations
                aMedical Clinic I , bInstitute of Pathology, and cInterdisciplinary Center for Clinical Research in Biomaterials and Tissue-Material Interaction in Implants, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany
                Article
                65546 J Vasc Res 2002;39:340–352
                10.1159/000065546
                12187124
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 3, References: 35, Pages: 13
                Categories
                Research Paper

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