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      Efficacy, Tolerability, and Safety of Lanthanum Carbonate in Hyperphosphatemia: A 6-Month, Randomized, Comparative Trial versus Calcium Carbonate

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          Background/Aims: Hyperphosphatemia is an important clinical consequence of renal failure, and its multiple adverse systemic effects are associated with significantly increased risks of morbidity and mortality in dialysis patients. Existing oral phosphate binders have not permitted control of serum phosphate within currently accepted guidelines. This study compares lanthanum carbonate with calcium carbonate for control of serum phosphate in hemodialysis patients. Methods: In this European multicentre study, 800 patients were randomised to receive either lanthanum or calcium carbonate and the dose titrated over 5 weeks to achieve control of serum phosphate. Serum levels of phosphate, calcium and parathryoid hormone were followed over the following 20 weeks. Results: Around 65% of patients in each group achieved phosphate control, but in the calcium carbonate group this was at the expense of significant hypercalcemia (20.2% of patients vs. 0.4%). Consequently, calcium x phosphate product tended to be better controlled in the lanthanum group. Conclusion: This 6-month study demonstrates that serum phosphate control with lanthanum carbonate (750–3,000 mg/day) is similar to that seen with calcium carbonate (1,500–9,000 mg/day), but with a significantly reduced incidence of hypercalcemia. Lanthanum carbonate is well tolerated and may be more effective in reducing calcium x phosphate product than calcium carbonate.

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          Most cited references 12

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          The spectrum of bone disease in end-stage renal failure--an evolving disorder.

          We have assessed the bone histology in 259 chronic dialysis patients, all of whom were in the same dialysis program. All patients had bone biopsies with quantitative histomorphometry, intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) measurements, basal and deferoxamine stimulated serum aluminum levels. Results demonstrate the increased incidence of the recently described aplastic bone lesion, particularly in patients treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD). Aluminum-related bone disease is much less common than previously described, perhaps in relation to the declining use of aluminum as a phosphate binder. A different pattern of bone lesions is seen in PD as compared with hemodialysis (HD), with low turnover disorders comprising 66% of the lesions seen in PD and high turnover lesions accounting for 62% of the bone histologic findings in HD. The difference in these patterns may relate to alterations in PTH levels, as mean PTH levels in HD patients were 2-1/2 times the levels found in PD patients (P < 0.0005), while older age, higher prevalence of diabetes and a shorter duration of dialysis may also have contributed to the findings in the PD patients. We suggest that PD, perhaps by maintaining calcium at higher levels, may more effectively suppress the parathyroid gland.
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            Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-titration, phase III study assessing the efficacy and tolerability of lanthanum carbonate: a new phosphate binder for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia.

             Paul W. Finn,  Parijat Joy,   (2003)
            Lanthanum carbonate is a novel, non-calcium, non-aluminum phosphate binder under evaluation for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients receiving either hemodialysis or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. This 16-week study assessed the control of serum phosphorus with lanthanum carbonate, and its effects on serum calcium, calcium x phosphorus product, and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Hemodialysis patients > or =18 years old entered into a 1- to 3-week washout period during which serum phosphorus levels rose to >5.9 mg/dL (1.90 mmol/L). In total, 126 patients were titrated with lanthanum carbonate at doses containing 375, 750, 1,500, 2,250, or 3,000 mg/d elemental lanthanum, given in divided doses with meals over a 6-week period, to achieve serum levels < or =5.9 mg/dL. By the end of dose titration, 11/126 (9%) patients received < or =750 mg/d of lanthanum, 25 (20%) received 1,500 mg/d, 37 (29%) received 2,250 mg/d, and 53 (42%) received 3,000 mg/d. Following titration, patients were randomized to receive either lanthanum carbonate or placebo during a 4-week, double-blind maintenance phase. At the study endpoint, the mean difference in serum phosphorus between the lanthanum carbonate and placebo treatment arms was 1.91 mg/dL (0.62 mmol/L) (P < 0.0001). Calcium x phosphorus product (P < 0.0001) and serum PTH levels (P < 0.01) were also significantly lower with lanthanum carbonate versus placebo. The incidence of drug-related adverse events was similar between placebo- and lanthanum carbonate-treated patients. Lanthanum carbonate is an effective and well-tolerated agent for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in patients with ESRD.
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              RenaGel, a nonabsorbed calcium- and aluminum-free phosphate binder, lowers serum phosphorus and parathyroid hormone. The RenaGel Study Group.

              This multicenter, open-label, dose-titration study assessed the safety and efficacy of RenaGel(R), a nonabsorbed calcium- and aluminum-free phosphate binder, in lowering serum phosphorus. Secondary outcomes were its effects on serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and serum lipids. Phosphate binders were discontinued during a two-week washout period. Patients whose serum phosphorus was more than 6.0 mg/dl during washout were eligible for treatment. RenaGel(R), at starting doses of two, three, or four 440 mg capsules three times per day with meals, was administered to 172 hemodialysis patients for eight weeks. RenaGel(R) could be increased by one capsule per meal every two weeks as necessary to achieve serum phosphorus control. A second two-week washout period followed. Mean serum phosphorus rose from 6.8 +/- 2.0 mg/dl at prewashout to 9.1 +/- 2.4 mg/dl at the end of the washout period. It then declined to 6.6 +/- 1.9 mg/dl by the end of the eight-week RenaGel(R) treatment period (P < 0. 0001). Serum phosphorus increased to 8.0 +/- 2.2 mg/dl at the end of the second washout period. The mean dose at the end of RenaGel(R) treatment was 5.4 g per day. Eighty-four percent of the patients previously used calcium-based phosphate binders. As expected, calcium declined during the initial washout period when calcium-based phosphate binders were discontinued. Mean serum calcium declined from 9.6 +/- 1.0 mg/dl at prewashout to 9.1 +/- 0.8 mg/dl after washout. It then increased to 9.4 +/- 0.9 mg/dl by the end of RenaGel(R) treatment. Median serum iPTH increased during the two-week washout from 208 pg/ml to 316 pg/ml and then declined to 224 pg/ml at the end of the eight-week treatment period (P < 0.0001 vs. end of initial washout). After eight weeks of treatment, RenaGel(R) reduced mean serum total cholesterol from 171.0 +/- 43.1 mg/dl to 145.0 +/- 38.7 mg/dl (P < 0.0001) and mean serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol from 102.0 +/- 34.9 mg/dl to 75. 6 +/- 29.4 mg/dl (P < 0.0001). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and serum albumin did not change. RenaGel(R), a novel and calcium- plus aluminum-free effective phosphate binder, can control serum phosphorus and reduce the levels of PTH and cholesterol without inducing hypercalcemia or other side effects. Thus, this new phosphate binder may be effective in the treatment of renal osteodystrophy in uremic patients.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Clin Pract
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                May 2005
                04 April 2005
                : 100
                : 1
                : c8-c19
                aManchester Institute of Nephrology and Transplantation, The Royal Infirmary, Manchester, UK; bUniversitair Ziekenhuis Gasthuisberg, Leuven, Belgium; cVirga Jesse Ziekenhuis, Hasselt, Belgium; dKfH-Dialysezentrum, Berlin, Germany; eFreeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; fFriedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany; gDialysezentrum Barmbek, Hamburg, Germany; hImelda Ziekenhuis, Bonheiden, Belgium; iKfH-Dialysezentrum, Bottrop, Germany
                84653 Nephron Clin Pract 2005;100:c8–c19
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

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