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      Morphology of the Eyeball, Orbit and Retina of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar) Alevins under Hypoxic Conditions Translated title: Morfología del Bulbo Ocular, Órbita y Retina de Alevines del Salmón del Atlántico (Salmo salar) bajo Condiciones Hipóxicas

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          Abstract

          It has been demonstrated that hypoxia retards the growth of fish, reduces the survival of their larvae, deforms their vertebral column, but despite this teleost fish have the ability to completely regenerate many of their tissues, particularly the retina. As we do not have enough information about the effects of hypoxia on the eyeball, orbit and retina of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), we propose the following objectives: 1) Compare the morphological changes of the eyeball of fish subject to hypoxia and normoxia. 2) Determine changes in the orbit structure. 3) Describe the retina of salmon alevins. 4). Recognize hypoxic cells using the anti-Hif1a antibody in the retina of alevins as a sensor. 5) Determine the Shh morphogenic expression in alevins exposed to different times of hypoxia. Around 1,000 Salmo salar alevins were placed in a continuous water flow of 9 °C at 100 % SatO2 and alevins maintained at a hypoxia of 60 % SatO2. The latter were transferred to normoxia (at days two, four, and eight after hatching). A control group maintained at continuous normoxia and another at continuous hypoxia was also considered. All the alevins were euthanized at 950 UTAs (±2 months after hatching). Diaphonization (double-stain) according to the Hanken & Wassersug technique was undertaken to describe the morphology of the periocular cartilage and to measure the ocular diameter. The HIF-1a factor antibody 1:50, and the anti-Shh antibody dilution of 1:100 were used. The alevins after hatching had large eyeballs with the optic cup having an embryonic shape, even a choroidal fissure. The greatest thickness was observed in the nasal ventral zone which corresponds to a zone of pluripotent cells. The optic cup aspect with embryonic characteristics has only been reported in salmonids. The central retina of the alevins those were cultivated with a 60 % saturation of O2 for two, four or eight days had positive immunostaining when analyzed with the anti-HIF1a antibody hypoxia sensor. The inner ganglion and nuclear layers had immunopositive cells, with the highest in the alevins that were two days in hypoxia and the lowest when the hypoxia was chronic. Nevertheless, in the latter case the alevins had anatomical deformation of the eyeball and periocular cartilage. The anti-Shh antibody clearly shows a gradient that is expressed in the germinative zone and in the cells of the inner ganglion and nuclear layers. The eyeball and particularly the retina in salmon alevins are an example of neuronal plasticity and neurogenesis.

          Translated abstract

          Se ha demostrado que la hipoxia retarda el crecimiento de los peces, reduce la supervivencia de sus larvas, deforma su columna vertebral, pero a pesar de esto, este pez teleósteo tiene la capacidad de regenerar completamente muchos de sus tejidos, en particular la retina. Como no existe suficiente información sobre los efectos de la hipoxia en el bulbo ocular, la órbita y retina del salmón del Atlántico (Salmo salar), los objetivos de este trabajo fueron: 1) Comparar los cambios morfológicos del bulbo ocular del pescado sujetos a hipoxia y normoxia; 2) Determinar los cambios en la estructura de la órbita; 3) Describir la retina de los alevines de salmón; 4) Reconocer las células hipóxicas utilizando el anticuerpo anti-Hif1a en la retina de alevines como un sensor; 5) Determinar la expresión morfogenética de Shh en alevines expuestos a diferentes momentos de hipoxia. Alrededor de 1.000 alevines Salmo salar se colocaron en un flujo continuo de agua a 9 °C, con 100 % de SatO2 y otros alevines se mantuvieron con una hipoxia de 60 % SatO2. Estos últimos fueron trasladados a normoxia (en los días dos, cuatro y ocho después de la eclosión). Un grupo control se mantuvo a normoxia continua y otro grupo a hipoxia continua. Todos los alevines se sacrificaron a 950 UTA (+ dos meses después de la eclosión). Se realizcón una diafonización (doble tinción), de acuerdo con la técnica de Hanken & Wassersug, para describir la morfología del cartílago periocular y para medir el diámetro ocular. Se utilizaron el anticuerpo anti-Hif1a a una dilución 1:50, y el anticuerpo anti-Shh a una dilución de 1:100. Los alevines después de la eclosión presentaron grandes bulbos oculares, con la copa óptica con forma embrionaria, incluso una fisura coroidea. El mayor espesor se observó en la zona ventral nasal que corresponde a una zona de células pluripotentes. El aspecto de la copa óptica con características embrionarias sólo se ha informado en los salmónidos. La retina central de los alevines fueron cultivadas con una saturación de 60 % de O2 para dos, cuatro y ocho días, y presentó inmunotinción positiva cuando se analizó con el sensor de hipoxia, el anticuerpo anti-HIF1a. El ganglio interior y las capas nucleares presentaron células immunopositivas, con los niveles más altos en los alevines con dos días de hipoxia y niveles más bajos en hipoxia crónica. Sin embargo, en éste último caso los alevines presentaron una deformación anatómica del bulbo ocular y el cartílago periocular. El anticuerpo anti-Shh mostró claramente un gradiente expresado en la zona germinativa y en las células del ganglio interior y las capas nucleares. El bulbo ocular y en particular la retina en alevines de salmón son un ejemplo de plasticidad neuronal y neurogénesis.

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          Most cited references 38

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          HIF-1: mediator of physiological and pathophysiological responses to hypoxia.

          All organisms can sense O(2) concentration and respond to hypoxia with adaptive changes in gene expression. The large body size of mammals necessitates the development of multiple complex physiological systems to ensure adequate O(2) delivery to all cells under normal conditions. The transcriptional regulator hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is an essential mediator of O(2) homeostasis. HIF-1 is required for the establishment of key physiological systems during development and their subsequent utilization in fetal and postnatal life. HIF-1 also appears to play a key role in the pathophysiology of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and chronic lung disease, which represent the major causes of mortality among industrialized societies. Genetic or pharmacological modulation of HIF-1 activity in vivo may represent a novel therapeutic approach to these disorders.
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            Rods and cones in the mouse retina. II. Autoradiographic analysis of cell generation using tritiated thymidine.

            The period of cell genesis of rod and cone photoreceptor cells has been determined in the retinas of C57BL/6J mice. Embryonic mice were exposed to a single dose of 3H-thymidine at embryonic day (E) 10--18 by injecting pregnant mice intraperitoneally. Animals at postnatal ages were injected subcutaneously once between postnatal day (P) 0--10. The eyes were removed at one to three months of age. After fixation, they were embedded in glycol methacrylate, sectioned at 1.5 micrometers and prepared for autoradiographic analysis. All of the cone cells are generated over a relatively short time interval during the fetal period. In the posterior retina, the peak of cone cell genesis occurs at E13-E14, and no cones are generated after E16. The rods, by contrast, are generated later and over a longer time period. They first begin to be generated in the posterior retina on E13, but the peak of cell genesis is not reached until the day of birth, and some rods are generated as late as P5. For both rods and cones the peaks of cell genesis in the peripheral retina occur two to three days later than in the posterior retina. The findings demonstrate that rods and cones are developmentally distinct cell types in the mouse retina.
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              Early onset of phenotype and cell patterning in the embryonic zebrafish retina.

              The regular arrangement of retinal cone cells in a mosaic pattern is a common feature of teleosts. In the zebrafish, Brachydanio rerio, the retinal cone mosaic comprises parallel rows consisting of a repeating motif of four cone types. In order to elucidate the temporal and spatial aspects of the genesis of the cone mosaic in the developing retina, we generated a monoclonal antibody that specifically binds to the double cone photoreceptor of the adult. We first saw staining in the developing retina with this antibody, FRet 43, at 48 hours postfertilization, the time at which the first photoreceptor cells undergo their final mitotic division. We then injected embryonic fish with the thymidine analog, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), confirming with a double-labeling experiment that the onset of FRet 43 antigenicity occurs within three hours of the cellular division that generates the double cone photoreceptors. Then we stained tangential sections of the 54-hour embryonic retina with FRet 43, further showing that cells devoid of staining alternate with stained pairs of cells in a pattern that is consistent with the arrangement of photoreceptors in the adult cone mosaic. These results indicate that a marker of the double cone phenotype is expressed at approximately the same time as cellular birthday and that the mosaic patterning is present within 6 hours of this expression.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                ijmorphol
                International Journal of Morphology
                Int. J. Morphol.
                Sociedad Chilena de Anatomía
                0717-9502
                March 2016
                : 34
                : 1
                : 320-329
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidad de La Frontera Chile
                [2 ] Universidad de Chile Chile
                [3 ] Universidad de La Frontera Chile
                [4 ] Universidad Autónoma de Chile Chile
                Article
                S0717-95022016000100046
                Product
                Product Information: website
                Categories
                ANATOMY & MORPHOLOGY

                Anatomy & Physiology

                Eyeball, Orbit, Retina, Salmo salar, Hypoxia, HIF1a, Shh, Globo ocular, Orbita, Hipoxia

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