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      Inheritance mode and fitness costs of acetamiprid resistance in brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål)

      , , , , , , ,
      Crop Protection
      Elsevier BV

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          REVIEW: An overview of the environmental risks posed by neonicotinoid insecticides

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            Neonicotinoid insecticide toxicology: mechanisms of selective action.

            The neonicotinoids, the newest major class of insecticides, have outstanding potency and systemic action for crop protection against piercing-sucking pests, and they are highly effective for flea control on cats and dogs. Their common names are acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam. They generally have low toxicity to mammals (acute and chronic), birds, and fish. Biotransformations involve some activation reactions but largely detoxification mechanisms. In contrast to nicotine, epibatidine, and other ammonium or iminium nicotinoids, which are mostly protonated at physiological pH, the neonicotinoids are not protonated and have an electronegative nitro or cyano pharmacophore. Agonist recognition by the nicotinic receptor involves cation-pi interaction for nicotinoids in mammals and possibly a cationic subsite for interaction with the nitro or cyano substituent of neonicotinoids in insects. The low affinity of neonicotinoids for vertebrate relative to insect nicotinic receptors is a major factor in their favorable toxicological profile.
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              Life-Table Analysis Incorporating Both Sexes and Variable Development Rates Among Individuals

              H-S Chi (1988)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Crop Protection
                Crop Protection
                Elsevier BV
                02612194
                June 2022
                June 2022
                : 156
                : 105958
                Article
                10.1016/j.cropro.2022.105958
                a846cb46-3649-4f94-b44b-b2855253510b
                © 2022

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

                https://doi.org/10.15223/policy-017

                https://doi.org/10.15223/policy-037

                https://doi.org/10.15223/policy-012

                https://doi.org/10.15223/policy-029

                https://doi.org/10.15223/policy-004

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