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      Data Mining-Based Analysis of Chinese Medicinal Herb Formulae in Chronic Kidney Disease Treatment

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          Abstract

          Background

          Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has long been used to treat chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Asia. Its effectiveness and safety for CKD treatment have been confirmed in documented studies. However, the prescription rule of formulae for Chinese medicinal herbs is complicated and remains uncharacterized. Thus, we used data mining technology to evaluate the treatment principle and coprescription pattern of these formulae in CKD TCM treatment.

          Methods

          Data on patients with CKD were obtained from the outpatient system of a TCM hospital. We established a Chinese herb knowledge base based on the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and the Chinese Materia Medica. Then, following extraction of prescription information, we deweighted and standardized each prescribed herb according to the knowledge base to establish a database of CKD treatment formulae. We analyzed the frequency with which individual herbs were prescribed, as well as their properties, tastes, meridian tropisms, and categories. Then, we evaluated coprescription patterns and assessed medication rules by performing association rule learning, cluster analysis, and complex network analysis.

          Results

          We retrospectively analyzed 299 prescriptions of 166 patients with CKD receiving TCM treatment. The most frequently prescribed core herbs for CKD treatment were Rhizoma Dioscoreae (Shanyao), Spreading Hedyotis Herb (Baihuasheshecao), Root of Snow of June (Baimagu), Radix Astragali (Huangqi), Poria (Fulin), Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae (Baizhu), Radix Pseudostellariae (Taizishen), and Fructus Corni (Shanzhuyu). The TCM properties of the herbs were mainly being warm, mild, and cold. The tastes of the herbs were mainly sweet, followed by bitter. The main meridian tropisms were Spleen Meridian of Foot-Taiyin, Liver Meridian of Foot-Jueyi, Lung Meridian of Hand-Taiyin, Stomach Meridian of Foot-Yangming, and Kidney Meridian of Foot-Shaoyin. The top three categories were deficiency-tonifying, heat-clearing, and dampness-draining diuretic.

          Conclusion

          Using an integrated analysis method, we confirmed that the primary TCM pathogeneses of kidney disease were deficiency and dampness-heat. The primary treatment principles were tonifying deficiency and eliminating dampness-heat.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Pharmacological effects of Astragaloside IV: a literature review.

          To review the pharmacological effects and mechanisms of action of Astragaloside IV in Huangqi (Radix Astragali Mongolici). Aticles focusing on Astragaloside IV in English and Chinese in databases were collected and reviewed in order to summarize the latest extraction separation, pharmacokinetics, and the pharmacological effects of astrageloside IV. Protective effects of Astrageloside IV on the cardiovascular system, immune, digestive, nervous system were identified, and the action mechanisms were associated with regulation of the calcium balance, anti-oxydant, antiapoptosis, antivirus, and so on. Astrageloside IV has broad application prospects, especially in cardiovascular diseases, digestive diseases, cancer and other modern high incidence, high-risk diseases, and could be developed as a medicine.
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            Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of chronic kidney disease.

            Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health issue with poor outcomes and high cost. There is growing evidence that some of the adverse outcomes of CKD can be prevented or delayed by early treatment using angiotensin II-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II-receptor blockers. A great amount of the world's population has been using traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCHM) for treatment of CKD and has accumulated their experience for years. In this article, the knowledge and the therapeutic principles of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of CKD are briefly reviewed. The efficacy of several TCHMs, supported by either clinical evidence or experimental studies, is presented. The future direction for the study of Chinese herbal medicines in CKD is discussed.
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              Efficacy and safety of traditional chinese medicine (Shenqi particle) for patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy: a multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial.

              To compare the safety and efficacy of the traditional Chinese medicine Shenqi particle and standard therapy with prednisone and cyclophosphamide (control) in adult patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN).
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
                Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
                ECAM
                Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM
                Hindawi
                1741-427X
                1741-4288
                2020
                24 January 2020
                24 January 2020
                : 2020
                Affiliations
                1Division of Nephrology, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Jiangsu Province Hospital of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029, China
                2School of Artificial Intelligence and Information Technology, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029, China
                3Division of Gerontology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210000, China
                4Division of Nephrology, Suzhou Hospital of Integrated Medicine, Suzhou 215200, China
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Hajime Nakae

                Article
                10.1155/2020/9719872
                7003280
                Copyright © 2020 Ping Xia et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funding
                Funded by: Postgraduate Research & Practice Innovation Program of Jiangsu Province
                Award ID: KYCX19_1189
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China
                Award ID: 81673912
                Award ID: 81873259
                Award ID: 81804219
                Award ID: 81774269
                Categories
                Research Article

                Complementary & Alternative medicine

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