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      La nutrición en la práctica deportiva: Adaptación de la pirámide nutricional a las características de la dieta del deportista

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          Abstract

          A pesar de los avances registrados en el campo de la nutrición deportiva y la importancia que una adecuada alimentación tiene para mejorar el rendimiento físico-deportivo, los deportistas tanto recreacionales como profesionales olvidan con frecuencia incluir la planificación de una dieta y una pauta de hidratación óptimas dentro de la estrategia global de preparación para la práctica deportiva. Las adaptaciones fisiológicas y metabólicas del organismo como consecuencia del ejercicio físico conducen a la necesidad de aumentar la ingesta de calorías (de acuerdo al gasto energético) y de proteínas (en base a las necesidades tróficas del organismo). Igualmente, es preciso prestar una mayor atención a la ingesta de vitaminas y minerales, especialmente las vitaminas del grupo B, así como al cinc y al cromo. Esto permite optimizar el metabolismo de los hidratos de carbono, limitantes últimos de la duración del ejercicio. Durante la fase de entrenamiento, la dieta debe aportar un 60% carbohidratos, la ingesta proteica se cifra en torno a 1,2- 2 g/kg/día y, en general, se deben seguir las recomendaciones de la pirámide nutricional. Durante las fases pre-, per- y post-competición, el aspecto saludable de la dieta se complementa con la necesidad de obtener unos buenos rendimientos físico-deportivos así como garantizar una rápida y eficaz recuperación. De nuevo son los hidratos de carbono de índice glucémico alto o medio y el agua los elementos de la dieta a los que hay que prestar mayor atención. En conclusión, el deportista debe someterse a un régimen dietético adecuado al incremento del gasto que sufre y al mayor recambio metabólico a que se ve sometido. La pirámide nutricional es una representación gráfica que facilita la comprensión y el seguimiento de una dieta saludable. En el presente trabajo se adapta y presenta dicha pirámide a las características de la alimentación del deportista, considerando de una manera eminentemente práctica los tipos y cantidades de alimento que deben ser ingeridos en base al aporte nutricional que determinan para el sujeto que realiza actividad físico-deportiva

          Translated abstract

          In spite of all the advances in sport nutrition and the importance of an adequate food intake in order to improve sport performance, both recreational and professional athletes forget frequently to include planning an optimum diet and fluid intake in their global strategy for performance. Physiological and metabolic adaptations produced as a consequence of physical exercise lead to the necessity of increasing caloric (in accordance to energy output) and protein (based on the trophic needs of the organism) intake. Likewise, paying major attention to vitamin and mineral intake, specifically B vitamins and zinc and chromium, is required, in order to optimize carbohydrate metabolism, the ultimate limiting factor for sport performance. During the training phase, 60% of calories should come from carbohydrates, protein intake should be 1.2 - 2 g/kg/day and athletes should follow the recommendations of the food guide pyramid. During the pre-, per- and post-competition phase the healthy aspect of the diet passes to a second level, in order to obtain good sport performance and to guarantee a fast and effective recovery. Again, carbohydrates with a high or medium glycaemic index and water are the nutrients which have to be calculated more thoroughly. In conclusion, athletes have to follow a diet that is adequate to their higher energy output and to their higher metabolic turnover. The food guide pyramid is a graphic expression which facilitates the comprehension and following of a healthy diet. In the present article, the authors introduce the pyramid adapted to the characteristics of sports nutrition, with easy-to-follow practical recommendations regarding the kind and amounts of foodstuffs that should be consumed in order to cover nutrient needs of people who exercise regularly

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          Most cited references112

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          Muscle blood flow is reduced with dehydration during prolonged exercise in humans.

          1. The present study examined whether the blood flow to exercising muscles becomes reduced when cardiac output and systemic vascular conductance decline with dehydration during prolonged exercise in the heat. A secondary aim was to determine whether the upward drift in oxygen consumption (VO2) during prolonged exercise is confined to the active muscles. 2. Seven euhydrated, endurance-trained cyclists performed two bicycle exercise trials in the heat (35 C; 40-50 % relative humidity; 61 +/- 2 % of maximal VO2), separated by 1 week. During the first trial (dehydration trial, DE), they bicycled until volitional exhaustion (135 +/- 4 min, mean +/- s.e.m.), while developing progressive dehydration and hyperthermia (3.9 +/- 0.3 % body weight loss; 39.7 +/- 0.2 C oesophageal temperature, Toes). In the second trial (control trial), they bicycled for the same period of time while maintaining euhydration by ingesting fluids and stabilizing Toes at 38.2 +/- 0.1 C after 30 min exercise. 3. In both trials, cardiac output, leg blood flow (LBF), vascular conductance and VO2 were similar after 20 min exercise. During the 20 min-exhaustion period of DE, cardiac output, LBF and systemic vascular conductance declined significantly (8-14 %; P < 0.05) yet muscle vascular conductance was unaltered. In contrast, during the same period of control, all these cardiovascular variables tended to increase. After 135 +/- 4 min of DE, the 2.0 +/- 0.6 l min-1 lower blood flow to the exercising legs accounted for approximately two-thirds of the reduction in cardiac output. Blood flow to the skin also declined markedly as forearm blood flow was 39 +/- 8 % (P < 0.05) lower in DE vs. control after 135 +/- 4 min. 4. In both trials, whole body VO2 and leg VO2 increased in parallel and were similar throughout exercise. The reduced leg blood flow in DE was accompanied by an even greater increase in femoral arterial-venous O2 (a-vO2) difference. 5. It is concluded that blood flow to the exercising muscles declines significantly with dehydration, due to a lowering in perfusion pressure and systemic blood flow rather than increased vasoconstriction. Furthermore, the progressive increase in oxygen consumption during exercise is confined to the exercising skeletal muscles.
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            Maximizing postexercise muscle glycogen synthesis: carbohydrate supplementation and the application of amino acid or protein hydrolysate mixtures.

            Postexercise muscle glycogen synthesis is an important factor in determining the time needed to recover from prolonged exercise. This study investigated whether an increase in carbohydrate intake, ingestion of a mixture of protein hydrolysate and amino acids in combination with carbohydrate, or both results in higher postexercise muscle glycogen synthesis rates than does ingestion of 0.8 g*kg(-)(1)*h(-)(1) carbohydrate, provided at 30-min intervals. Eight trained cyclists visited the laboratory 3 times, during which a control beverage and 2 other beverages were tested. After the subjects participated in a strict glycogen-depletion protocol, muscle biopsy samples were collected. The subjects received a beverage every 30 min to ensure ingestion of 0.8 g carbohydrate*kg(-)(1)*h(-)(1) (Carb trial), 0.8 g carbohydrate*kg(-)(1)*h(-)(1) plus 0.4 g wheat protein hydrolysate plus free leucine and phenylalanine*kg(-)(1)*h(-)(1) (proven to be highly insulinotropic; Carb + Pro trial), or 1.2 g carbohydrate*kg(-)(1)*h(-)(1) (Carb + Carb trial). After 5 h, a second biopsy was taken. Plasma insulin responses in the Carb + Pro and Carb + Carb trials were higher than those in the Carb trial (88 +/- 17% and 46 +/- 18%; P < 0.05). Muscle glycogen synthesis was higher in both trials than in the Carb trial (35. 4 +/- 5.1 and 44.8 +/- 6.8 compared with 16.6 +/- 7.8 micromol glycosol units*g dry wt(-)(1)*h(-)(1), respectively; P < 0.05). Addition of a mixture of protein hydrolysate and amino acids to a carbohydrate-containing solution (at an intake of 0.8 g carbohydrate*kg(-)(1)*h(-)(1)) can stimulate glycogen synthesis. However, glycogen synthesis can also be accelerated by increasing carbohydrate intake (0.4 g*kg(-)(1)*h(-)(1)) when supplements are provided at 30-min intervals.
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              Fatty acid oxidation is directly regulated by carbohydrate metabolism during exercise.

              We determined whether increased glycolytic flux from hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia directly reduces fatty acid oxidation during exercise. Fatty acid oxidation rates were measured during constant-rate intravenous infusion of trace amounts of a long-chain fatty acid ([1-13C]palmitate; Pal) vs. a medium-chain fatty acid ([1-13C]octanoate; Oct). Six endurance-trained men cycled for 40 min at 50% of maximal O2 uptake 1) after an overnight fast ("fasting") and 2) after ingestion of 1.4 g/kg of glucose at 60 min and again 10 min before exercise (Glc). Glc caused hyperinsulinemia, a preexercise blood glucose of 6 mM, and a 34% reduction in total fat oxidation during exercise due to an approximately equal reduction in oxidation of plasma-free fatty acids (FFA) and intramuscular triglycerides (all P < 0.05). Oxidation of Pal was significantly reduced during Glc compared with fast (i.e., 70.0 +/- 4.1 vs. 86.0 +/- 1.9% of tracer infusion rate; P < 0.05). However, Glc had no effect on Oct oxidation, which is apparently not limited by mitochondrial transport. Furthermore, Glc reduced plasma FFA appearance 36% (P < 0.05), indicating a coordination of effects on adipose tissue and muscle. In summary, substrate oxidation during exercise can be regulated by increased glycolytic flux that is accompanied by a direct inhibition of long-chain fatty acid oxidation. These observations indicate that carbohydrate availability can directly regulate fat oxidation during exercise.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                alan
                Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición
                ALAN
                Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nutrición (Caracas )
                0004-0622
                December 2001
                : 51
                : 4
                : 321-331
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidad de Granada
                Article
                S0004-06222001000400001
                a8759dc9-2709-4b70-a3a6-7990fd9753e9

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                History
                Product

                SciELO Venezuela

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.org.ve/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0004-0622&lng=en
                Categories
                NUTRITION & DIETETICS

                Nutrition & Dietetics
                Sports,nutrition,performance,food guide pyramid,Deporte,nutrición,rendimiento,pirámide nutricional

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