Molecular defects in the gene encoding steroid 21-hydroxylase (CYP21) result in impairment of adrenal steroid synthesis in patients affected with autosomal-recessive congenital adrenal hyperplasias (CAH). In this study, we report on the molecular screening of six point mutations, large deletions, gene conversion events and duplications in 25 unrelated Lebanese families affected by CAH due to steroid 21-hydroxylase. The methods used (PCR-digestion and southern blot) allowed the detection of 96% of the disease chromosomes. In classical forms, the most frequent mutation was the splice site mutation in intron 2 accounting for 39% of the disease alleles. Gene conversion events accounted for 14% of the alleles, but no large deletions were found. In nonclassical forms, the V281L mutation in exon 7 represent 86% of the tested alleles. Genotype-phenotype correlations were as expected: Δ8nt, Q318X and gene conversion correspond to SW forms, whereas the intron 2 splice site mutation may give either SW or SV forms; the V281L mutation was responsible for nonclassical forms. The spectrum of mutations underlines the genetic diversity of the Lebanese population. No correlation could be drawn out between mutations and some specific religious communities, except for the Δ8nt mutation, which is present only in the Christian Maronite group. Molecular study of the CYP21 gene might constitute a good support for clinicians, especially in consanguineous families, for whom we could provide genetic counselling.