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      Management of Diabetic Foot Ulcers

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          Abstract

          Diabetic foot is a serious complication of diabetes which aggravates the patient’s condition whilst also having significant socioeconomic impact. The aim of the present review is to summarize the causes and pathogenetic mechanisms leading to diabetic foot, and to focus on the management of this important health issue. Increasing physicians’ awareness and hence their ability to identify the “foot at risk,” along with proper foot care, may prevent diabetic foot ulceration and thus reduce the risk of amputation.

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          Most cited references 64

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          Negative pressure wound therapy after partial diabetic foot amputation: a multicentre, randomised controlled trial.

          Diabetic foot wounds, particularly those secondary to amputation, are very complex and difficult to treat. We investigated whether negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) improves the proportion and rate of wound healing after partial foot amputation in patients with diabetes. We enrolled 162 patients into a 16-week, 18-centre, randomised clinical trial in the USA. Inclusion criteria consisted of partial foot amputation wounds up to the transmetatarsal level and evidence of adequate perfusion. Patients who were randomly assigned to NPWT (n=77) received treatment with dressing changes every 48 h. Control patients (n=85) received standard moist wound care according to consensus guidelines. NPWT was delivered through the Vacuum Assisted Closure (VAC) Therapy System. Wounds were treated until healing or completion of the 112-day period of active treatment. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study has been registered with , number NCT00224796. More patients healed in the NPWT group than in the control group (43 [56%] vs 33 [39%], p=0.040). The rate of wound healing, based on the time to complete closure, was faster in the NPWT group than in controls (p=0.005). The rate of granulation tissue formation, based on the time to 76-100% formation in the wound bed, was faster in the NPWT group than in controls (p=0.002). The frequency and severity of adverse events (of which the most common was wound infection) were similar in both treatment groups. NPWT delivered by the VAC Therapy System seems to be a safe and effective treatment for complex diabetic foot wounds, and could lead to a higher proportion of healed wounds, faster healing rates, and potentially fewer re-amputations than standard care.
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            Prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and its relation to glycaemic control and potential risk factors: the EURODIAB IDDM Complications Study.

            The EURODIAB IDDM Complications Study involved the examination of 3250 randomly selected insulin-dependent diabetic patients, from 31 centres in 16 European countries. Part of the examination included an assessment of neurological function including neuropathic symptoms and physical signs, vibration perception threshold, tests of autonomic function and the prevalence of impotence. The prevalence of diabetic neuropathy across Europe was 28% with no significant geographical differences. Significant correlations were observed between the presence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy with age (p < 0.05), duration of diabetes (p < 0.001), quality of metabolic control (p < 0.001), height (p < 0.01), the presence of background or proliferative diabetic retinopathy (p < 0.01), cigarette smoking (p < 0.001), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p < 0.001) and the presence of cardiovascular disease (p < 0.05), thus confirming previous associations. New associations have been identified from this study - namely with elevated diastolic blood pressure (p < 0.05), the presence of severe ketoacidosis (p < 0.001), an increase in the levels of fasting triglyceride (p < 0.001), and the presence of microalbuminuria (p < 0.01). All the data were adjusted for age, duration of diabetes and HbA1c. Although alcohol intake correlated with absence of leg reflexes and autonomic dysfunction, there was no overall association of alcohol consumption and neuropathy. The reported problems of impotence were extremely variable between centres, suggesting many cultural and attitudinal differences in the collection of such information in different European countries. In conclusion, this study has identified previously known and new potential risk factors for the development of diabetic peripheral neuropathy.
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              Lower extremity amputations--a review of global variability in incidence.

              To quantify global variation in the incidence of lower extremity amputations in light of the rising prevalence of diabetes mellitus. An electronic search was performed using the EMBASE and MEDLINE databases from 1989 until 2010 for incidence of lower extremity amputation. The literature review conformed to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement standards. Incidence of all forms of lower extremity amputation ranges from 46.1 to 9600 per 10(5) in the population with diabetes compared with 5.8-31 per 10(5) in the total population. Major amputation ranges from 5.6 to 600 per 10(5) in the population with diabetes and from 3.6 to 68.4 per 10(5) in the total population. Significant reductions in incidence of lower extremity amputation have been shown in specific at-risk populations after the introduction of specialist diabetic foot clinics. Significant global variation exists in the incidence of lower extremity amputation. Ethnicity and social deprivation play a significant role but it is the role of diabetes and its complications that is most profound. Lower extremity amputation reporting methods demonstrate significant variation with no single standard upon which to benchmark care. Effective standardized reporting methods of major, minor and at-risk populations are needed in order to quantify and monitor the growing multidisciplinary team effect on lower extremity amputation rates globally. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2011 Diabetes UK.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                john.doupis@joslin.harvard.edu
                Journal
                Diabetes Ther
                Diabetes Ther
                Diabetes Therapy
                Springer Healthcare Communications (Heidelberg )
                1869-6953
                1869-6961
                20 April 2012
                20 April 2012
                December 2012
                : 3
                : 1
                Affiliations
                [1 ]First Department of Propaedeutic Medicine, Athens University Medical School, Laiko General Hospital, Athens, Greece
                [2 ]Department of Internal Medicine and Diabetes Clinic, Salamis Naval Hospital, Salamis Naval Base, 18900 Salamis, Greece
                Article
                4
                10.1007/s13300-012-0004-9
                3508111
                22529027
                © The Author(s) 2012
                Categories
                Review
                Custom metadata
                © Springer Healthcare 2012

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