Psychosocial adjustment and psychological distress was compared in 31 male nondiabetic successful renal transplant and 31 hospital hemodialysis patients, matched for duration of treatment, age, education, and family status. The only significant difference between the two groups was that the transplant patients were more satisfied with the medical staff. Vocational rehabilitation was similar in both groups. Sexual interrelationships, as reported by the patients, were slightly, but insignificantly, better in the transplanted group. Thus, the psychological adjustment of transplant and hemodialysis patients is similar when demographic differences are accounted for.