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      Tracheal intubation with the rigid tube for laryngoscopy – a new method

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          Abstract

          Background

          The rigid tube for laryngoscopy is an instrument used in ENT, for inspecting the larynx and its vicinity. We used it to facilitate intubation, in ENT patients.

          Methods

          Twenty patients attending for surgery were included for study. Group 1 (n=10) had no airway pathology but at least two predictors of an anatomically difficult airway. Group 2 (n=10) had an obstructing airway pathology. After anesthesia induction, classical laryngoscopy was performed, and intubation grade registered. Using the retromolar approach the rigid tube advanced slowly, the epiglottis was lifted, and the vocal cords were visualized. The bougie was introduced through the rigid tube into the trachea, the rigid tube was extracted, and the intubating tube was placed in the trachea, over the bougie.

          Results

          The mean (SD) maneuver duration was 59.4 (18.2) sec. The Cormack-Lehane view of the glottis at classical laryngoscopy was poor in four patients in Group 1 and six patients in Group 2. The lowest desaturation was 82%. No complications other than sore throat were noted.

          Conclusion

          The rigid tube for laryngoscopy is a useful tool for intubation in ENT patients. We noticed an advantage against classical intubation in patients with base of tongue carcinoma, reduced mouth opening and protruding upper incisors with this instrument.

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          Most cited references 13

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          Diagnostic accuracy of anaesthesiologists' prediction of difficult airway management in daily clinical practice: a cohort study of 188 064 patients registered in the Danish Anaesthesia Database.

          Both the American Society of Anesthesiologists and the UK NAP4 project recommend that an unspecified pre-operative airway assessment be made. However, the choice of assessment is ultimately at the discretion of the individual anaesthesiologist. We retrieved a cohort of 188 064 cases from the Danish Anaesthesia Database, and investigated the diagnostic accuracy of the anaesthesiologists' predictions of difficult tracheal intubation and difficult mask ventilation. Of 3391 difficult intubations, 3154 (93%) were unanticipated. When difficult intubation was anticipated, 229 of 929 (25%) had an actual difficult intubation. Likewise, difficult mask ventilation was unanticipated in 808 of 857 (94%) cases, and when anticipated (218 cases), difficult mask ventilation actually occurred in 49 (22%) cases. We present a previously unpublished estimate of the accuracy of anaesthesiologists' prediction of airway management difficulties in daily routine practice. Prediction of airway difficulties remains a challenging task, and our results underline the importance of being constantly prepared for unexpected difficulties.
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            Preoperative assessment for difficult intubation in general and ENT surgery: predictive value of a clinical multivariate risk index.

            Several clinical multifactorial indexes have been described for predicting difficult laryngoscopy or intubation, or both, mostly in general surgery, and less frequently in ENT surgery. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a single clinical index for prediction of difficulty in tracheal intubation in both ENT and general surgery. We studied a population of 1200 consecutive ENT and general surgical patients. Clinical criteria were tested using univariate and multivariate analysis. Difficult intubation was defined as requiring unusual techniques. Logistic regression identified seven criteria as independent predictors of difficult tracheal intubation; previous history of difficult intubation; pathologies associated with difficult intubation; clinical symptoms of pathological airway; inter-incisor gap and mandible luxation; thyromental distance; head and neck movement; and Mallampati's modified test. Point values were assigned to each of these factors in proportion to regression coefficients representing the relative weight of each predictive intubation difficulty factor, the sum comprising the score. The best predictive threshold was chosen using a receiver operating characteristic curve. We then prospectively studied and validated the score in a population of 1090 consecutive ENT and general surgery patients. The sensitivity and specificity of the predictions were 94% and 96% in general surgery, 90% and 93% in non-cancer ENT surgery, and 92% and 66% in ENT cancer surgery, respectively.
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              Cormack-Lehane classification revisited.

              The Cormack-Lehane (CL) classification is broadly used to describe laryngeal view during direct laryngoscopy. This classification, however, has been validated by only a few studies reporting inconclusive data concerning its reliability. This discrepancy between widespread use and limited evidence prompted us to investigate the knowledge about the classification among anaesthesiologists and its intra- and inter-observer reliability. One hundred and twenty interviews were performed at a major European anaesthesia congress. Participants were interviewed about their general knowledge on grading systems to classify laryngeal view during laryngoscopy and were subsequently asked to define the grades of the CL classification. Inter- and intra-observer reliabilities were tested in 20 anaesthesiologists well familiar with the CL classification, who performed 100 laryngoscopies in a full-scale patient simulator. Although 89% of interviewed subjects claimed to know a classification to describe laryngeal view during laryngoscopy, 53% were able to name a classification. When specifically asked about the CL classification, 74% of the interviewed subjects stated to know this classification, whereas 25% could define all four grades correctly. In the simulator-based part of the study, inter-observer reliability was fair with a kappa coefficient of 0.35 and intra-observer reliability was poor with a kappa of 0.15. The CL classification is poorly known in detail among anaesthesiologists and reproducibility even in subjects well familiar with this classification is limited.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2019
                25 February 2019
                : 15
                : 309-313
                Affiliations
                ENT Department, Iuliu Haţieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, doinel.radeanu@ 123456gmail.com
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Doinel Radeanu, ENT Department, Iuliu Haţieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, No 8 Victor Babes Street, Cluj Napoca 400012, Romania, Tel +40 723 025325, Fax +40 264 597257, Email doinel.radeanu@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                tcrm-15-309
                10.2147/TCRM.S190186
                6395053
                © 2019 Marchis et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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