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      A Cluster of Bloodstream Infections and Pyrogenic Reactions among Hemodialysis Patients Traced to Dialysis Machine Waste-Handling Option Units

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          Abstract

          From June 17 through November 15, 1995, ten episodes of Enterobacter cloacae bloodstream infection and three pyrogenic reactions occurred in patients at a hospital-based hemodialysis center. In a case-control study limited to events occurring during October 1–31, 1995, seven dialysis sessions resulting in E. cloacae bacteremia or pyrogenic reaction without bacteremia were compared with 241 randomly selected control sessions. Dialysis machines were examined, dialysis fluid and equipment were cultured, and E. cloacae isolates were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Each dialysis machine had a waste-handling option (WHO) through which dialyzer-priming fluid was discarded before each dialysis session; in 7 of 11 machines, one-way check valves designed to prevent backflow from the WHO into patient bloodlines were dysfunctional. In the case-control study, case sessions were more frequent when machines with ≥1 dysfunctional check valves were used. E. cloacae with identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns were isolated from case patients, dialysis fluid, station drains, and WHO units. Our investigation shows that bloodstream infections and pyrogenic reactions were caused by backflow from contaminated dialysis machine WHO units into patient bloodlines. The outbreak was terminated when WHO use was discontinued, check valves were replaced, and dialysis machine disinfection was enhanced.

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          Most cited references 2

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          Pseudomonas stutzeri bacteremia associated with hemodialysis.

           Angella Goetz (1983)
          Pseudomonas stutzeri bacteremia developed in six patients undergoing hemodialysis. Fever, shaking chills, nausea, and vomiting were observed. All patients recovered, although only two received specific antibiotic therapy. The infections occurred sporadically over a period of nine months. Pseudomonas stutzeri was subsequently isolated from the dialysate that circulates within the hemodialysis machine. The ultimate source was the deionized water that is combined with the liquid concentrate to form the dialysate. Pseudomonas stutzeri could be localized to the top cannister of the dialysis machine but was also isolated throughout the machine, including the bottom reservoir and the recirculating pump. The emphasis on handwashing, strict compliance with disinfection procedures, and elimination of prolonged sitting times for the filled machine after disinfection resulted in no further cases of P stutzeri infection.
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            Pyrogenic reactions associated with the reuse of disposable hollow-fiber hemodialyzers

             S. Dov Gordon (1988)
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              Author and article information

              Journal
              AJN
              Am J Nephrol
              10.1159/issn.0250-8095
              American Journal of Nephrology
              S. Karger AG
              0250-8095
              1421-9670
              1998
              December 1998
              09 December 1998
              : 18
              : 6
              : 485-489
              Affiliations
              a Hospital Infections Program, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Ga., USA; b Hôpital Charles-LeMoyne, Greenfield Park, Québec, Qué., c Laboratoire de Santé Publique du Québec, Montréal, Qué., and d Field Epidemiology Training Program, Bureau of Communicable Disease Epidemiology, Ottawa, Ont., Canada
              Article
              13392 Am J Nephrol 1998;18:485–489
              10.1159/000013392
              9845821
              © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

              Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

              Page count
              Figures: 2, References: 16, Pages: 5
              Product
              Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/13392
              Categories
              Clinical Study

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