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      Cholesterol Crystal Embolism Syndrome in Dialysis Patients: An Emerging Clinical Diagnosis?

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          Abstract

          Background: Cholesterol crystal embolism syndrome (CCE) is an increasing end-stage renal disease cause. Few cases have been described on dialysis, despite the high prevalence of the predisposing factors. Methods: The diagnostic criteria of the present study were: skin lesions, myalgia, fatigue, fever and acute inflammatory serologic signs, in the presence of severe vasculopathy. The precipitating factors were: anticoagulation, endovascular intervention and ulcerated atherosclerotic plaque. Results: Between October 2003 and September 2005, CCE was diagnosed in 6 dialysis patients (of 200–210 on chronic treatment): 5 males, 1 female, median age 59.5 years (47–70) and end-stage renal disease follow-up 11.5 years (3–25). All had severe vasculopathy, 5 cardiopathy, and 4 were failed graft recipients. The treatment included: peritoneal dialysis, daily dialysis, ‘conventional’ hemodialysis (2 cases) and hemodiafiltration. The diagnosis was based on the clinical-laboratory picture in 1 patient. In the 5 others clues were present (dicumarol therapy, angioplasty, femoral artery thrombosis, CCE predialysis and ulcerated aortic plaque). The therapeutic approach consisted of corticosteroids (5 cases), statins (4 cases) and prostaglandin analogues (4 cases). Conclusion: The differential diagnosis of CCE should also be considered in dialysis patients (necrotic lesions, limb pain and vasculitis-like signs).

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          Most cited references 15

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          Budesonide is effective in adolescent and adult patients with active eosinophilic esophagitis.

          Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the esophagus characterized by dense tissue eosinophilia; it is refractory to proton pump inhibitor therapy. EoE affects all age groups but most frequently individuals between 20 and 50 years of age. Topical corticosteroids are effective in pediatric patients with EoE, but no controlled studies of corticosteroids have been reported in adult patients. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of oral budesonide (1 mg twice daily for 15 days) in adolescent and adult patients with active EoE. Pretreatment and posttreatment disease activity was assessed clinically, endoscopically, and histologically. The primary end point was reduced mean numbers of eosinophils in the esophageal epithelium (number per high-power field [hpf] = esophageal eosinophil load). Esophageal biopsy and blood samples were analyzed using immunofluorescence and immunoassays, respectively, for biomarkers of inflammation and treatment response. A 15-day course of therapy significantly decreased the number of eosinophils in the esophageal epithelium in patients given budesonide (from 68.2 to 5.5 eosinophils/hpf; P < .0001) but not in the placebo group (from 62.3 to 56.5 eosinophils/hpf; P = .48). Dysphagia scores significantly improved among patients given budesonide compared with those given placebo (5.61 vs 2.22; P < .0001). White exudates and red furrows were reversed in patients given budesonide, based on endoscopy examination. Budesonide, but not placebo, also reduced apoptosis of epithelial cells and molecular remodeling events in the esophagus; no serious adverse events were observed. A 15-day course of treatment with budesonide is well tolerated and highly effective in inducing a histologic and clinical remission in adolescent and adult patients with active EoE. Copyright © 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Oral viscous budesonide is effective in children with eosinophilic esophagitis in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

            Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is caused by immunologic reactions to ingested/inhaled allergens. The diagnosis is considered if >or=15 eosinophils per high-powered field (eos/hpf) are detected in mucosal biopsies. Placebo-controlled studies have not been conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of oral viscous budesonide (OVB). Children with EoE were randomly assigned to groups that were given OVB (n=15) or placebo (n=9). Patients or=5 feet tall received 1 mg and 2 mg OVB daily, respectively. All patients received lansoprazole. Duration of treatment was 3 months, followed by repeat endoscopy and biopsies. Patients were classified as responders if their peak eosinophil counts were or=20 eos/hpf. Baseline and post-treatment symptoms and endoscopic and histologic features were scored. Thirteen (86.7%) children given OVB (P<.0001) and none who received placebo (P=.3) were classified as responders. Mean pre-/post-treatment peak eosinophil counts were 66.7 and 4.8 eos/hpf, respectively, in the group given OVB (P<.0001); they were 83.9 and 65.6 eos/hpf, respectively, in the group given placebo (P=.3). In the group given OVB, there were significant reductions from baseline values in proximal (P=.002), mid (P=.0003), and distal (P=.001) esophageal eosinophilia. After OVB therapy, compared with baseline, the mean symptom (P=.0007), endoscopy (P=.0005), and histology scores improved (P=.0035) significantly. OVB is an effective treatment of pan-esophageal disease in children with EoE. OVB improves symptoms and endoscopic and histologic features. Proton pump inhibitor single therapy did not significantly improve esophageal eosinophilia or symptoms of EoE. Copyright (c) 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Predictors of renal and patient outcomes in atheroembolic renal disease: a prospective study.

              Atheroembolic renal disease (AERD) is part of a multisystemic disease accompanied by high cardiovascular comorbidity and mortality. Interrelationships between traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis, vascular comorbidities, precipitating factors, and markers of clinical severity of the disease in determining outcome remain poorly understood. Patients with AERD presenting to a single center between 1996 and 2002 were followed-up with prospective collection of clinical and biochemical data. The major outcomes included end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and death. Ninety-five patients were identified (81 male). AERD was iatrogenic in 87%. Mean age was 71.4 yr. Twenty-three patients (24%) developed ESRD; 36 patients (37.9%) died. Cox regression analysis showed that significant independent predictors of ESRD were long-standing hypertension (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.1; P < 0.001) and preexisting chronic renal impairment (HR = 2.12; P = 0.02); use of statins was independently associated with decreased risk of ESRD (HR = 0.02; P = 0.003). Age (HR = 1.09; P = 0.009), diabetes (HR = 2.55; P = 0.034), and ESRD (HR = 2.21; P = 0.029) were independent risk factors for patient mortality; male gender was independently associated with decreased risk of death (HR = 0.27; P = 0.007). Cardiovascular comorbidities, precipitating factors, and clinical severity of AERD had no prognostic impact on renal and patient survival. It is concluded that AERD has a strong clinical impact on patient and renal survival. The study clearly shows the importance of preexisting chronic renal impairment in determining both renal and patient outcome, this latter being mediated by the development of ESRD. The protective effect of statins on the development of ESRD should be evaluated in a prospective study.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BPU
                Blood Purif
                10.1159/issn.0253-5068
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                0253-5068
                1421-9735
                2006
                December 2006
                21 December 2006
                : 24
                : 5-6
                : 433-438
                Affiliations
                Nephrology, Internal Medicine Department, University of Turin, Turin, Italy
                Article
                95359 Blood Purif 2006;24:433–438
                10.1159/000095359
                16940713
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 1, References: 25, Pages: 6
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/95359
                Categories
                Original Paper

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