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      Prognostic performance of inflammation-based prognostic indices in primary operable non-small cell lung cancer

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          Abstract

          Background:

          At least 30% of patients with primary resectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) will experience a relapse in their disease within 5 years following definitive treatment. Clinicopathological predictors have proved to be suboptimal in identifying high-risk patients. We aimed to establish whether inflammation-based scores offer an improved prognostic ability in terms of estimating overall (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) in a cohort of operable, early-stage NSCLC patients.

          Methods:

          Clinicopathological, demographic and treatment data were collected prospectively for 220 patients operated for primary NSCLC at the Hammersmith Hospital from 2004 to 2011. Pretreatment modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) were tested together with established prognostic factors in uni- and multivariate Cox regression analyses of OS and RFS.

          Results:

          Half of the patients were male, with a median age of 65. A total of 57% were classified as stage I with adenocarcinoma being the most prevalent subtype (60%). Univariate analyses of survival revealed stage ( P<0.001), grade ( P=0.02), lymphovascular (LVI, P=0.001), visceral pleural invasion (VPI, P=0.003), mGPS ( P=0.02) and NLR ( P=0.04) as predictors of OS, with stage ( P<0.001), VPI ( P=0.02) and NLR ( P=0.002) being confirmed as independent prognostic factors on multivariate analyses. Patients with more advanced stage ( P<0.001) and LVI ( P=0.008) had significantly shorter RFS.

          Conclusions:

          An elevated NLR identifies operable NSCLC patients with a poor prognostic outlook and an OS difference of almost 2 years compared to those with a normal score at diagnosis. Our study validates the clinical utility of the NLR in early-stage NSCLC.

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          Most cited references 33

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          The systemic inflammation-based Glasgow Prognostic Score: a decade of experience in patients with cancer.

          Since the initial work, a decade ago that the combination of C-reactive protein and albumin, the Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS), had independent prognostic value in patients with cancer, there have been more than 60 studies (>30,000 patients) that have examined and validated the use of the GPS or the modified GPS (mGPS) in a variety of cancer scenarios. The present review provides a concise overview of these studies and comments on the current and future clinical utility of this simple objective systemic inflammation-based score. The GPS/mGPS had independent prognostic value in (a) unselected cohorts (4 studies, >19,400 patients) (b) operable disease (28 studies, >8,000 patients) (c) chemo/radiotherapy (11 studies, >1500 patients) (d) inoperable disease (11 studies, >2,000 patients). Association studies (15 studies, >2,000 patients) pointed to an increased GPS/mGPS being associated with increased weight and muscle loss, poor performance status, increased comorbidity, increased pro-inflammatory and angiogenic cytokines and complications on treatment. These studies have originated from 13 different countries, in particular the UK and Japan. A chronic systemic inflammatory response, as evidenced by the GPS/mGPS, is clearly implicated in the prognosis of patients with cancer in a variety of clinical scenarios. The GPS/mGPS is the most extensively validated of the systemic inflammation-based prognostic scores and therefore may be used in the routine clinical assessment of patients with cancer. It not only identifies patients at risk but also provides a well defined therapeutic target for future clinical trials. It remains to be determined whether the GPS has prognostic value in other disease states. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            A comparison of inflammation-based prognostic scores in patients with cancer. A Glasgow Inflammation Outcome Study.

            Components of the systemic inflammatory response, combined to form inflammation-based prognostic scores (modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS), Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR), Platelet Lymphocyte Ratio (PLR), Prognostic Index (PI), Prognostic Nutritional Index (PNI)) have been associated with cancer specific survival. The aim of the present study was to compare the prognostic value of these scores. Patients (n=27,031) who had an incidental blood sample taken between 2000 and 2007 for C-reactive protein, albumin, white cell, neutrophil, lymphocyte and platelet counts, as well as a diagnosis of cancer (Scottish Cancer Registry) were identified. Of this group 8759 patients who had been sampled within two years following their cancer diagnosis were studied. On follow up, there were 5163 deaths of which 4417 (86%) were cancer deaths. The median time from blood sampling to diagnosis was 1.7 months. An elevated mGPS, NLR, PLR, PI and PNI were predictive of a reduced cancer specific survival independent of age, sex and deprivation and tumour site (all p<0.001). The area under the receiver operator curves was greatest for mGPS and PI. Specifically, in colorectal cancer, an elevated mGPS and PI were predictive of a reduced cancer specific survival independent of age, sex, deprivation and tumour stage (both p<0.001). The results of the present study show that systemic inflammation-based scores, in particular the mGPS and PI, have prognostic value in cancer independent of tumour site. Based on the present results and the existing validation literature, the mGPS should be included in the routine assessment of all patients with cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Lymphopenia as a prognostic factor for overall survival in advanced carcinomas, sarcomas, and lymphomas.

              Lymphopenia is frequent in advanced cancers and predicts the toxicity of chemotherapy. Its effect on relapse and survival is uncertain. Its prognostic value for survival was analyzed in three databases of previously reported prospective multicenter studies: (a) FEC chemotherapy in metastatic breast carcinoma; (b) CYVADIC in advanced soft tissue sarcoma (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group 62791); and (c) prospective, consecutive phase III studies of aggressive diffuse large-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas conducted at Centre Léon Bérard between 1987 and 1993. Univariate and multivariate analyses of prognostic factors for survival were performed. The incidence of lymphopenia of 1, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients with international prognostic index (IPI) of > 0, and advanced soft tissue sarcoma and metastatic breast cancer patients with bone metastases. Inunivariate analysis, lymphopenia of <1,000/microL significantly correlated to overall survival in patients with metastatic breast cancer (median, 10 versus 14 mo; P < 0.0001), advanced soft tissue sarcoma (median, 5 versus 10 months; P < 0.01), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (median, 11 versus 94 months; P < 0.0001). In multivariate analysis (Cox model), lymphopenia was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival in metastatic breast cancer [RR (relative risk), 1.8; 95% CI (confidence interval), 1.3-2.4] along with liver metastases and PS; in advanced soft tissue sarcoma (RR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.0-2.1) along with liver metastases, lung metastases, and PS; and in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (RR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.03-2.1) along with IPI. Our findings show that lymphopenia is an independent prognostic factor for overall and progression-free survival in several cancers.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Br J Cancer
                Br. J. Cancer
                British Journal of Cancer
                Nature Publishing Group
                0007-0920
                1532-1827
                15 April 2014
                25 March 2014
                : 110
                : 8
                : 1930-1935
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Division of Experimental Medicine, Hammersmith Campus of Imperial College London , Du Cane Road, W120HS London, UK
                [2 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Hammersmith Hospital , Du Cane Road, W120HS London, UK
                [3 ]Division of Oncology, Hammersmith Campus of Imperial College London , Du Cane Road, W120HS London, UK
                [4 ]Department of Pathology, Hammersmith Campus of Imperial College London , Du Cane Road, W120HS London, UK
                Author notes
                Article
                bjc2014145
                10.1038/bjc.2014.145
                3992503
                24667648
                Copyright © 2014 Cancer Research UK

                From twelve months after its original publication, this work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/

                Categories
                Clinical Study

                Oncology & Radiotherapy

                inflammation, nsclc, nlr, plr, mgps, survival

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