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      Drug Design, Development and Therapy (submit here)

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      Evolution of Drug Delivery Systems for Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis


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          Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a disease marked by painful oral lesions on the buccal and labial mucosa or tongue. Drug delivery systems (DDS) for RAS include topical forms that manage wound healing, cover the ulcer, and relieve the associated pain. DDS targeting the oral mucosa face a major challenge, especially the short residence times in the mouth due to the effect of “saliva wash-out”, which continually removes the drug. The objective of this review is to study the development of preparation forms and delivery systems of various types and preparations that have been used for RAS management from 1965 until February 2020. There are 20 types of DDS for RAS which were discussed in 62 articles. The preparations were classified into 4 preparation forms: liquid, semi-solid, solid, and miscellaneous. In addition, the ultimate DDS for RAS preparations is the semi-solid forms (41.94%), which include 5 types of DDS are gel, paste, patch, cream, and ointment. This preparation was developed into new preparation form (11.29%), such as adhesive alginates, dentifrice, OraDisc, membranes, bioresorbable plates, pellicles, and gelosomes. Generally, the mucosal drug delivery system is the method of choice in RAS treatment because the ulcer is commonly located in the oral mucosa. In conclusion, these preparations are designed to improve drug delivery and drug activity for the treatment of RAS ulcers. Moreover, almost all of these DDS are topical preparations that use various types of mucoadhesive polymers to increase both residence time in the oral mucosa and pain relief in RAS treatment.

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          A review of saliva: normal composition, flow, and function.

          An adequate supply of saliva is critical to the preservation and maintenance of oral tissue. Clinicians often do not value the many benefits of saliva until quantities are decreased. Much is written on the subject of salivary hypofunction, but little attention is paid to normal salivary flow and function. This article is a brief, up-to-date overview of the literature on the basics of normal salivary composition, flow, and function. A review of the literature was conducted using MEDLINE and Healthstar (1944 through 1999); articles were selected for inclusion on the basis of relevance and significance to the clinician.
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            An Overview of Chitosan Nanoparticles and Its Application in Non-Parenteral Drug Delivery

            The focus of this review is to provide an overview of the chitosan based nanoparticles for various non-parenteral applications and also to put a spotlight on current research including sustained release and mucoadhesive chitosan dosage forms. Chitosan is a biodegradable, biocompatible polymer regarded as safe for human dietary use and approved for wound dressing applications. Chitosan has been used as a carrier in polymeric nanoparticles for drug delivery through various routes of administration. Chitosan has chemical functional groups that can be modified to achieve specific goals, making it a polymer with a tremendous range of potential applications. Nanoparticles (NP) prepared with chitosan and chitosan derivatives typically possess a positive surface charge and mucoadhesive properties such that can adhere to mucus membranes and release the drug payload in a sustained release manner. Chitosan-based NP have various applications in non-parenteral drug delivery for the treatment of cancer, gastrointestinal diseases, pulmonary diseases, drug delivery to the brain and ocular infections which will be exemplified in this review. Chitosan shows low toxicity both in vitro and some in vivo models. This review explores recent research on chitosan based NP for non-parenteral drug delivery, chitosan properties, modification, toxicity, pharmacokinetics and preclinical studies.
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              Drug delivery systems: An updated review

              Drug delivery is the method or process of administering a pharmaceutical compound to achieve a therapeutic effect in humans or animals. For the treatment of human diseases, nasal and pulmonary routes of drug delivery are gaining increasing importance. These routes provide promising alternatives to parenteral drug delivery particularly for peptide and protein therapeutics. For this purpose, several drug delivery systems have been formulated and are being investigated for nasal and pulmonary delivery. These include liposomes, proliposomes, microspheres, gels, prodrugs, cyclodextrins, among others. Nanoparticles composed of biodegradable polymers show assurance in fulfilling the stringent requirements placed on these delivery systems, such as ability to be transferred into an aerosol, stability against forces generated during aerosolization, biocompatibility, targeting of specific sites or cell populations in the lung, release of the drug in a predetermined manner, and degradation within an acceptable period of time.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                27 September 2021
                : 15
                : 4071-4089
                [1 ]Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Padjadjaran University , Sumedang, Jatinangor, 45363, Indonesia
                [2 ]School of Pharmacy Muhammadiyah Cirebon , Cirebon, Kedawung, 45153, Indonesia
                [3 ]Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Minia University , Minia, 61517, Egypt
                [4 ]Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Padjadjaran , Sumedang, Jatinangor, 45363, Indonesia
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Nasrul Wathoni; Marline Abdassah Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Padjadjaran , Jln. Raya Bandung-Sumedang Km. 21 Jatinangor, Kab., Sumedang, Jatinangor, 45363, IndonesiaTel +62 22 842 888888 Email nasrul@unpad.ac.id; marline.abdassah@unpad.ac.id
                Author information
                © 2021 Suharyani et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                : 09 July 2021
                : 08 September 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, References: 100, Pages: 19
                Funded by: College Superior Applied Research;
                Funded by: Doctoral Dissertation Research Grants, Ministry of Culture and Education, Republic of Indonesia;
                This research was funded by the College Superior Applied Research (Penelitian Terapan Unggulan Perguruan Tinggi) and Doctoral Dissertation Research Grants, Ministry of Culture and Education, Republic of Indonesia, grant number 1207/UN6.3.1/PT.00/2021.

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                drug delivery system,dds,recurrent aphthous stomatitis,ras,mucoadhesive,residence time


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