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      Síndrome de Ballantyne: caso clínico


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          Se describe un caso de síndrome de Ballantyne de una paciente de 33 años con embarazo de 33 semanas quien consultó por presentar edema en miembros inferiores, cefalea y escotomas. La ecografía fetal demostró la presencia de feto único en presentación cefálica, edema de cuero cabelludo, hidronefrosis, gran cantidad de líquido en cavidad abdominal y torácica fetal acompañado de compresión del corazón y los pulmones hacia la columna vertebral, realizándose el diagnóstico de hidrops fetal. Se realizó cesárea por sufrimiento fetal agudo obteniendo un recién nacido con edema generalizado. El examen patológico de la placenta confirmó el diagnóstico por la presencia de vellosidades hidrópicas e inmaduras.

          Translated abstract

          A case of Ballantyne syndrome is described in a 33 years-old patient with a 33 weeks pregnancy who consulted for presenting lower limbs edema, headache and blurred vision. Fetal ultrasonography showed the presence of cephalic unique fetus, scalp edema, hydronephrosis, large amount of fluid in fetal abdominal and thoracic cavities accompanied with hearth and lungs compression to spinal cord, diagnosing fetal hydrops. Cesarean section was performed due to acute fetal distress obtaining a newborn with generalized edema. Pathological examination of placenta confirmed the presence on hydropic and immature placental villi.

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          Clinical biological features of Ballantyne syndrome and the role of placental hydrops.

          Ballantyne syndrome was first described in association with severe hydrops fetalis caused by rhesus isoimmunization, and lately, in association with diverse etiologies of nonimmunological severe fetal hydrops. This report is a case of typical Ballantyne syndrome in association with lethal hydrops fetalis caused by Ebstein's anomaly. It is likely that any severe fetal hydrops with massive placental hydrops may produce Ballantyne syndrome. Hemodilution could be the main biological feature, differentiating Ballantyne syndrome from usual preeclamptic syndromes. Pathophysiological hypotheses are discussed.
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            The efficacy of flecainide versus digoxin in the management of fetal supraventricular tachycardia.

            Fetal supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) can be successfully treated transplacentally, but in cases where fetal hydrops develops there is considerable morbidity and mortality. The present study was carried out to establish whether the introduction of flecainide altered obstetric management and fetal outcome. A retrospective analysis took place of 51 singleton pregnancies which were referred to the division of prenatal diagnosis because of fetal tachycardia between 1982 and 1993. SVT was documented in 50 out of 51 fetuses, one of which displayed a combination of extensive rhabdomyomas and severe hydrops and died shortly after referral. In the other fetus ventricular tachycardia was diagnosed. Of the remaining 49 fetuses, 14 did not receive any prenatal treatment, but nine needed postnatal treatment. Transplacental treatment of SVT took place in 35 fetuses, of which 22 presented without hydrops and 13 with hydrops. These subsets differed significantly with respect to restoration of normal sinus rhythm (73% vs. 30%; p < 0.001) and mortality (0% vs. 46%; p < 0.001). Digoxin was effective in restoring sinus rhythm in 55 per cent of the non-hydropic fetuses but in only eight per cent of the hydropic fetuses. Flecainide was effective in restoring sinus rhythm in all non-hydropic fetuses where digoxin treatment failed, and in 43 per cent of hydropic fetuses. Administration of flecainide resulted in a significantly reduced mortality (p < 0.001) compared with digoxin treatment. No adverse effects were seen. Postnatal anti-arrhythmic treatment was necessary in 23 infants. Treatment could be withdrawn within one year in all cases but one.
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              Mirror syndrome: a novel approach to therapy with fetal peritoneal-amniotic shunt.

              Mirror syndrome is a rare entity characterized by maternal disease mimicking fetal hydrops. In mirror syndrome, there is maternal hypertension, edema, and often proteinuria in association with fetal hydrops. The causal link between mirror syndrome and hydrops fetalis remains elusive. This is a case report of a pregnant woman who developed mirror syndrome associated with fetal hydrops. A fetal pelvic mass resulted in bladder outlet obstruction, subsequent bladder rupture, and massive urinary ascites. The resultant massive ascites caused thoracic and cardiac compression and subsequent hydrops fetalis. Placement of a peritoneal-amniotic shunt resolved the fetal hydrops and maternal mirror syndrome. In utero treatment of hydropic fetus can result in the cure of maternal mirror syndrome.

                Author and article information

                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Revista de Obstetricia y Ginecología de Venezuela
                Rev Obstet Ginecol Venez
                Sociedad de Obstetricia y Ginecología de Venezuela (Caracas )
                September 2009
                : 69
                : 3
                : 204-207
                [1 ] Hospital Central Dr. Urquinaona Venezuela



                SciELO Venezuela

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.org.ve/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0048-7732&lng=en

                Obstetrics & Gynecology
                Ballantyne syndrome,Fetal hydrops,Edema,Síndrome de Ballantyne,Hidrops fetal


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