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      Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management (submit here)

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      Effect of red yeast rice combined with antioxidants on lipid pattern, hs-CRP level, and endothelial function in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects


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          Our aim was to test, through a crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial, if a short-term treatment with 10 mg monacolins combined with antioxidants could improve lipid pattern, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and endothelial function in a small cohort of moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. Thus, 25 healthy, moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects were consecutively enrolled and, after 4 weeks of stabilization diet, were randomized to the sequence placebo followed by a washout, monacolins or monacolins followed by a washout, placebo, with each period being 4 weeks long. At each study step, a complete lipid pattern, safety parameters, hs-CRP, and endothelial function have been measured. When compared to the placebo phase, during monacolin treatment, patients experienced a more favorable percentage change in total cholesterol (TC) (TC after monacolin treatment, −18.35%; TC after placebo treatment, −5.39%), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (LDL after monacolin treatment, −22.36%; LDL after placebo treatment, −1.38%), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (non-HDL after monacolin treatment, −22.83%; non-HDL after placebo treatment: −7.15%), hs-CRP (hs-CRP after monacolin treatment: −2.33%; hs-CRP after placebo treatment, 2.11%), and endothelial function (pulse volume displacement after monacolin treatment, 18.59%; pulse volume displacement after placebo treatment, −6.69%). No significant difference was observed with regard to triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, and safety parameters. On the basis of our data, we could demonstrate that a 10 mg monacolin nutraceutical treatment appears to safely reduce cholesterolemia, hs-CRP, and markers of vascular remodeling in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. These results need to be confirmed in larger patient samples and in studies with longer duration.

          Most cited references29

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          Endothelial function and dysfunction. Part I: Methodological issues for assessment in the different vascular beds: a statement by the Working Group on Endothelin and Endothelial Factors of the European Society of Hypertension.

          An enormous number of studies in the last two decades have been devoted to investigating the role of the endothelium in cardiovascular diseases. Nonetheless, the optimal methodology for investigating the multifaceted aspects of endothelial dysfunction is still under debate. Biochemical markers, molecular genetic tests and invasive and non-invasive tools with and without pharmacological and physiological stimuli have been introduced. Furthermore newer pharmacological tools have been proposed. However, the application of these methodologies should fulfil a number of requirements in order to provide conclusive answers in this area of research. Thus, the most relevant methodological issues in the research on endothelial function and dysfunction are summarized in this paper.
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            C-reactive protein-mediated low density lipoprotein uptake by macrophages: implications for atherosclerosis.

            LDL and C-reactive protein (CRP) are important cardiovascular risk factors. Both LDL and CRP deposit in the arterial wall during atherogenesis. Stranded LDL is taken up by macrophages, causing foam cell formation. Because native LDL does not induce foam cell formation, we hypothesized that CRP may opsonize native LDL for macrophages. Monocytes were isolated from human blood and transformed into macrophages. CRP/LDL uptake was assessed by immunofluorescent labeling and the use of confocal laser scanning microscopy. Native LDL coincubated with CRP was taken up by macrophages by macropinocytosis. Uptake of the CRP/LDL coincubate was mediated by the CRP receptor CD32. We conclude that foam cell formation in human atherogenesis may be caused in part by uptake of CRP-opsonized native LDL.
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              Clinical efficacy of an automated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein assay.

              Prospective studies have shown that C-reactive protein (CRP) can be used to predict risk of future cardiovascular events. High-sensitivity methods for CRP (hs-CRP) measurement are needed for this purpose. We compared the clinical efficacy of an automated and commercially available latex-enhanced assay (Latex) for hs-CRP (Dade Behring) to a validated in-house ELISA, previously shown to predict future peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in asymptomatic populations. Using a prospective, nested, case-control design, we measured baseline hs-CRP concentrations in 144 apparently healthy men who subsequently developed symptomatic PAD and 144 age- and smoking habit-matched controls who remained free of vascular disease over the follow-up period of 60 months. The two hs-CRP assays correlated highly (r = 0.95; P <0.001), and all but two participants were classified into concordant quartiles or varied by only one quartile. The median hs-CRP of the case group was significantly higher than that of controls when measured by either the ELISA (1.34 vs 0.99 mg/L; P = 0.034) or the Latex method (1.80 vs 1.20 mg/L; P = 0.042). Furthermore, for both ELISA and the Latex method, the calculated relative risks of developing PAD increased significantly with each increasing quartile of hs-CRP. The calculated interquartile increase in relative risk of PAD was 31% (95% confidence interval, 5.2-62.2%; P = 0.01) for ELISA and 34% (95% confidence interval, 8.2-66.1%; P = 0.007) for the Latex method. Our findings indicate that the Latex method is equally as efficacious as the validated ELISA in classifying patients into cutoff points established by prospective studies for risk stratification for coronary and cerebrovascular disease.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                23 February 2016
                : 12
                : 281-286
                Medical and Surgical Sciences Department, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Arrigo F G Cicero, Medical and Surgical Sciences Department, University of Bologna, Via Albertoni 15, 40138 Bologna, Italy, Tel +39 051 214 2224, Fax +39 051 390 646, Email arrigo.cicero@ 123456unibo.it
                © 2016 Cicero et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                monacolins,ldl-cholesterol,metalloproteinases,high-sensitivity c-reactive protein,nutraceutical,clinical trial


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