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      A threatened new species of Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) from the Brazilian Cerrado revealed by morpho-anatomical analysis


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          A new species of Ipomoea , endemic to the Cerrado domain in Maranhão, Brazil, is described. Ipomoea maranhensis D.Santos & Buril, sp. nov. has been misidentified as I. burchellii Meisn. in several herbaria. Even though both species have oblong, pubescent leaves, they can be distinguished by morpho-anatomical characters. We present a diagnosis, complete description, illustration, taxonomic comments, conservation status and distribution map.

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          Recent assembly of the Cerrado, a neotropical plant diversity hotspot, by in situ evolution of adaptations to fire.

          The relative importance of local ecological and larger-scale historical processes in causing differences in species richness across the globe remains keenly debated. To gain insight into these questions, we investigated the assembly of plant diversity in the Cerrado in South America, the world's most species-rich tropical savanna. Time-calibrated phylogenies suggest that Cerrado lineages started to diversify less than 10 Mya, with most lineages diversifying at 4 Mya or less, coinciding with the rise to dominance of flammable C4 grasses and expansion of the savanna biome worldwide. These plant phylogenies show that Cerrado lineages are strongly associated with adaptations to fire and have sister groups in largely fire-free nearby wet forest, seasonally dry forest, subtropical grassland, or wetland vegetation. These findings imply that the Cerrado formed in situ via recent and frequent adaptive shifts to resist fire, rather than via dispersal of lineages already adapted to fire. The location of the Cerrado surrounded by a diverse array of species-rich biomes, and the apparently modest adaptive barrier posed by fire, are likely to have contributed to its striking species richness. These findings add to growing evidence that the origins and historical assembly of species-rich biomes have been idiosyncratic, driven in large part by unique features of regional- and continental-scale geohistory and that different historical processes can lead to similar levels of modern species richness.
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            Supporting Red List threat assessments with GeoCAT: geospatial conservation assessment tool

            Abstract GeoCAT is an open source, browser based tool that performs rapid geospatial analysis to ease the process of Red Listing taxa. Developed to utilise spatially referenced primary occurrence data, the analysis focuses on two aspects of the geographic range of a taxon: the extent of occurrence (EOO) and the area of occupancy (AOO). These metrics form part of the IUCN Red List categories and criteria and have often proved challenging to obtain in an accurate, consistent and repeatable way. Within a familiar Google Maps environment, GeoCAT users can quickly and easily combine data from multiple sources such as GBIF, Flickr and Scratchpads as well as user generated occurrence data. Analysis is done with the click of a button and is visualised instantly, providing an indication of the Red List threat rating, subject to meeting the full requirements of the criteria. Outputs including the results, data and parameters used for analysis are stored in a GeoCAT file that can be easily reloaded or shared with collaborators. GeoCAT is a first step toward automating the data handling process of Red List assessing and provides a valuable hub from which further developments and enhancements can be spawned.
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              Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) in Bolivia


                Author and article information

                Pensoft Publishers
                17 June 2020
                : 151
                : 93-106
                [1 ] Programa de Pós-Graduação em Botânica, Laboratório de Sistemática Integrativa, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Av. Manoel de Medeiros, s/n, Dois Irmãos, 50670-901, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco Recife Brazil
                [2 ] Programa de Pós-Graduação em Agroecologia, Universidade Estadual do Maranhão, Av. Lourenço Vieira da Silva, s/n, Jardim São Cristóvão, 65055-970, São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil Universidade Estadual do Maranhão São Luís Brazil
                [3 ] Departamento de Botânica, Laboratório de Anatomia Vegetal, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Av. Prof. Moraes Rego, 1235, Cidade Universitária, 50670-901, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil Universidade Federal de Pernambuco Recife Brazil
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Diego Santos ( fdsantosbot@ 123456gmail.com )

                Academic editor: L. Giacomin

                Diego Santos, Raysa Valéria Carvalho Saraiva, Tiago Massi Ferraz, Emília Cristina Pereira Arruda, Maria Teresa Buril

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Funded by: Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico 501100003593 http://doi.org/10.13039/501100003593
                Research Article
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                South America


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