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      Prevention of Torsade de Pointes in Hospital Settings : A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology Foundation

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          SCN5A mutations associated with an inherited cardiac arrhythmia, long QT syndrome.

          Long QT syndrome (LQT) is an inherited disorder that causes sudden death from cardiac arrhythmias, specifically torsade de pointes and ventricular fibrillation. We previously mapped three LQT loci: LQT1 on chromosome 11p15.5, LQT2 on 7q35-36, and LQT3 on 3p21-24. Here we report genetic linkage between LQT3 and polymorphisms within SCN5A, the cardiac sodium channel gene. Single strand conformation polymorphism and DNA sequence analyses reveal identical intragenic deletions of SCN5A in affected members of two unrelated LQT families. The deleted sequences reside in a region that is important for channel inactivation. These data suggest that mutations in SCN5A cause chromosome 3-linked LQT and indicate a likely cellular mechanism for this disorder.
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            Atypical antipsychotic drugs and the risk of sudden cardiac death.

            Users of typical antipsychotic drugs have an increased risk of serious ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. However, less is known regarding the cardiac safety of the atypical antipsychotic drugs, which have largely replaced the older agents in clinical practice. We calculated the adjusted incidence of sudden cardiac death among current users of antipsychotic drugs in a retrospective cohort study of Medicaid enrollees in Tennessee. The primary analysis included 44,218 and 46,089 baseline users of single typical and atypical drugs, respectively, and 186,600 matched nonusers of antipsychotic drugs. To assess residual confounding related to factors associated with the use of antipsychotic drugs, we performed a secondary analysis of users of antipsychotic drugs who had no baseline diagnosis of schizophrenia or related psychoses and with whom nonusers were matched according to propensity score (i.e., the predicted probability that they would be users of antipsychotic drugs). Current users of typical and of atypical antipsychotic drugs had higher rates of sudden cardiac death than did nonusers of antipsychotic drugs, with adjusted incidence-rate ratios of 1.99 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.68 to 2.34) and 2.26 (95% CI, 1.88 to 2.72), respectively. The incidence-rate ratio for users of atypical antipsychotic drugs as compared with users of typical antipsychotic drugs was 1.14 (95% CI, 0.93 to 1.39). Former users of antipsychotic drugs had no significantly increased risk (incidence-rate ratio, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.98 to 1.30). For both classes of drugs, the risk for current users increased significantly with an increasing dose. Among users of typical antipsychotic drugs, the incidence-rate ratios increased from 1.31 (95% CI, 0.97 to 1.77) for those taking low doses to 2.42 (95% CI, 1.91 to 3.06) for those taking high doses (P<0.001). Among users of atypical agents, the incidence-rate ratios increased from 1.59 (95% CI, 1 .03 to 2.46) for those taking low doses to 2.86 (95% CI, 2.25 to 3.65) for those taking high doses (P=0.01). The findings were similar in the cohort that was matched for propensity score. Current users of typical and of atypical antipsychotic drugs had a similar, dose-related increased risk of sudden cardiac death. 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society
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              Electrophysiological effects of ranolazine, a novel antianginal agent with antiarrhythmic properties.

              Ranolazine is a novel antianginal agent capable of producing antiischemic effects at plasma concentrations of 2 to 6 micromol/L without reducing heart rate or blood pressure. The present study examines its electrophysiological effects in isolated canine ventricular myocytes, tissues, and arterially perfused left ventricular wedge preparations. Transmembrane action potentials (APs) from epicardial and midmyocardial (M) regions and a pseudo-ECG were recorded simultaneously from wedge preparations. APs were also recorded from epicardial and M tissues. Whole-cell currents were recorded from epicardial and M myocytes. Ranolazine inhibited I(Kr) (IC50=11.5 micromol/L), late I(Na), late I(Ca), peak I(Ca), and I(Na-Ca) (IC50=5.9, 50, 296, and 91 micromol/L, respectively) and I(Ks) (17% at 30 micromol/L), but caused little or no inhibition of I(to) or I(K1). In tissues and wedge preparations, ranolazine produced a concentration-dependent prolongation of AP duration of epicardial but abbreviation of that of M cells, leading to reduction or no change in transmural dispersion of repolarization (TDR). At [K+]o=4 mmol/L, 10 micromol/L ranolazine prolonged QT interval by 20 ms but did not increase TDR. Extrasystolic activity and spontaneous torsade de pointes (TdP) were never observed, and stimulation-induced TdP could not be induced at any concentration of ranolazine, either in normal or low [K+]o. Ranolazine (5 to 20 micromol/L) suppressed early afterdepolarizations (EADs) and reduced the increase in TDR induced by the selective I(Kr) blocker d-sotalol. Ranolazine produces ion channel effects similar to those observed after chronic amiodarone (reduced I(Kr), I(Ks), late I(Na), and I(Ca)). The actions of ranolazine to suppress EADs and reduce TDR suggest that, in addition to its antianginal actions, the drug may possess antiarrhythmic activity.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Circulation
                Circulation
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                0009-7322
                1524-4539
                March 02 2010
                March 02 2010
                : 121
                : 8
                : 1047-1060
                Article
                10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.192704
                3056123
                20142454
                a8c71f15-e4d3-48e9-96f9-497bc808f4d1
                © 2010

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