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      Sleep apnoea among Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal patients in the Northern Territory of Australia—a comparative study

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          Abstract

          Australian Aboriginal and Torres Straight Islanders (ATSI) are noted to have a higher burden of chronic health conditions. However, there is a paucity of data on obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) in this population. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the clinical and polysomnographic (PSG) characteristics of ATSI and non-ATSI adult patients who underwent diagnostic PSG between 2011 and 2015. There were a total of 3078 patients. Of the total, 403 (13%) were of ATSI origin. Among those of ATSI origin, 61% were male and 39% females, while among the non-ATSI cohort, 66% were males. The median age was 47.8 years in ATSI and 51.5 years in the non-ATSI cohort. In the combined cohort, body mass index was more than 30 kg/m2 (61%), hypertension (14.4%), diabetes (17.8%), and heart disease (23.3%). The ATSI patients had higher rates of class III obesity (27 vs. 15%), hypertension (26 vs. 14%), cardiac disease (34 vs. 23%), and diabetes (37 vs. 17%). Among all the study participants, the PSG confirmed 83.7% of the patients had an apnoea–hypopnea index (AHI) more than 5/h, mild (AHI 5–15/h) in 28.4%, moderate (AHI 15–30/h) in 22.3%, and severe (AHI > 30/h) in 33.0%. Among the ATSI patients, 46% had severe OSA. The median total AHI value was higher in the ATSI population (25, interquartile range [IQR]: 11–58) compared to the non-ATSI (17, IQR: 7–36), and in rural/remote population (19, IQR: 8–42) compared to urban (17, IQR: 7–37). This trend was similar for NREM (non-rapid eye movement)-AHI and REM (rapid eye movement)-AHI scores, although statistically significant difference was found only with ATSI status. In the combined cohort the probability of (OR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.32–2.00, p < 0.001) of severe OSA was 62% higher in individual with hypertension, however, when stratified by ATSI status, the association was only significant in the non-ATSI population (OR = 1.53 95% CI: 1.21–1.94, p < 0.001). The odds of severe AHI was also significantly associated with heart disease (1.37; 95% CI: 1.14,1.63, p < 0.001), diabetes (1.74; 95% CI: 1.43,2.10; p < 0.001) and smoking (1.28; 95% CI: 1.09,1.50, p = 0.0023) in the overall study cohort. In both ATSI and non-ATSI patients, body mass index, neck circumference, sleep efficiency, wake after sleep onset, and respiratory arousal index were significantly higher and independently associated with severe AHI.

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          Most cited references38

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          Health Effects of Overweight and Obesity in 195 Countries over 25 Years.

          Background While the rising pandemic of obesity has received significant attention in many countries, the effect of this attention on trends and the disease burden of obesity remains uncertain. Methods We analyzed data from 67.8 million individuals to assess the trends in obesity and overweight prevalence among children and adults between 1980 and 2015. Using the Global Burden of Disease study data and methods, we also quantified the burden of disease related to high body mass index (BMI), by age, sex, cause, and BMI level in 195 countries between 1990 and 2015. Results In 2015, obesity affected 107.7 million (98.7-118.4) children and 603.7 million (588.2- 619.8) adults worldwide. Obesity prevalence has doubled since 1980 in more than 70 countries and continuously increased in most other countries. Although the prevalence of obesity among children has been lower than adults, the rate of increase in childhood obesity in many countries was greater than the rate of increase in adult obesity. High BMI accounted for 4.0 million (2.7- 5.3) deaths globally, nearly 40% of which occurred among non-obese. More than two-thirds of deaths related to high BMI were due to cardiovascular disease. The disease burden of high BMI has increased since 1990; however, the rate of this increase has been attenuated due to decreases in underlying cardiovascular disease death rates. Conclusions The rapid increase in prevalence and disease burden of elevated BMI highlights the need for continued focus on surveillance of BMI and identification, implementation, and evaluation of evidence-based interventions to address this problem.
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            Prospective study of the association between sleep-disordered breathing and hypertension.

            Sleep-disordered breathing is prevalent in the general population and has been linked to chronically elevated blood pressure in cross-sectional epidemiologic studies. We performed a prospective, population-based study of the association between objectively measured sleep-disordered breathing and hypertension (defined as a laboratory-measured blood pressure of at least 140/90 mm Hg or the use of antihypertensive medications). We analyzed data on sleep-disordered breathing, blood pressure, habitus, and health history at base line and after four years of follow-up in 709 participants of the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study (and after eight years of follow-up in the case of 184 of these participants). Participants were assessed overnight by 18-channel polysomnography for sleep-disordered breathing, as defined by the apnea-hypopnea index (the number of episodes of apnea and hypopnea per hour of sleep). The odds ratios for the presence of hypertension at the four-year follow-up study according to the apnea-hypopnea index at base line were estimated after adjustment for base-line hypertension status, body-mass index, neck and waist circumference, age, sex, and weekly use of alcohol and cigarettes. Relative to the reference category of an apnea-hypopnea index of 0 events per hour at base line, the odds ratios for the presence of hypertension at follow-up were 1.42 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.13 to 1.78) with an apnea-hypopnea index of 0.1 to 4.9 events per hour at base line as compared with none, 2.03 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.29 to 3.17) with an apnea-hypopnea index of 5.0 to 14.9 events per hour, and 2.89 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.46 to 5.64) with an apnea-hypopnea index of 15.0 or more events per hour. We found a dose-response association between sleep-disordered breathing at base line and the presence of hypertension four years later that was independent of known confounding factors. The findings suggest that sleep-disordered breathing is likely to be a risk factor for hypertension and consequent cardiovascular morbidity in the general population.
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              Long-term cardiovascular outcomes in men with obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea with or without treatment with continuous positive airway pressure: an observational study.

              The effect of obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea as a cardiovascular risk factor and the potential protective effect of its treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is unclear. We did an observational study to compare incidence of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events in simple snorers, patients with untreated obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea, patients treated with CPAP, and healthy men recruited from the general population. We recruited men with obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea or simple snorers from a sleep clinic, and a population-based sample of healthy men, matched for age and body-mass index with the patients with untreated severe obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea. The presence and severity of the disorder was determined with full polysomnography, and the apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) was calculated as the average number of apnoeas and hypopnoeas per hour of sleep. Participants were followed-up at least once per year for a mean of 10.1 years (SD 1.6) and CPAP compliance was checked with the built-in meter. Endpoints were fatal cardiovascular events (death from myocardial infarction or stroke) and non-fatal cardiovascular events (non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, coronary artery bypass surgery, and percutaneous transluminal coronary angiography). 264 healthy men, 377 simple snorers, 403 with untreated mild-moderate obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea, 235 with untreated severe disease, and 372 with the disease and treated with CPAP were included in the analysis. Patients with untreated severe disease had a higher incidence of fatal cardiovascular events (1.06 per 100 person-years) and non-fatal cardiovascular events (2.13 per 100 person-years) than did untreated patients with mild-moderate disease (0.55, p=0.02 and 0.89, p<0.0001), simple snorers (0.34, p=0.0006 and 0.58, p<0.0001), patients treated with CPAP (0.35, p=0.0008 and 0.64, p<0.0001), and healthy participants (0.3, p=0.0012 and 0.45, p<0.0001). Multivariate analysis, adjusted for potential confounders, showed that untreated severe obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea significantly increased the risk of fatal (odds ratio 2.87, 95%CI 1.17-7.51) and non-fatal (3.17, 1.12-7.51) cardiovascular events compared with healthy participants. In men, severe obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea significantly increases the risk of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events. CPAP treatment reduces this risk.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Sleep
                Oxford University Press (OUP)
                0161-8105
                1550-9109
                March 2020
                March 12 2020
                October 14 2019
                March 2020
                March 12 2020
                October 14 2019
                : 43
                : 3
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Royal Darwin Hospital, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia
                [2 ]Flinders University, College of Medicine and Public Health, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
                [3 ]Northern Territory Medical School, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia
                [4 ]Darwin Respiratory and Sleep Health, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia
                [5 ]Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Flinders Medical Centre, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
                [6 ]Menzies School of Health Research, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia
                [7 ]Cains Base Hospital, Cains, Queensland, Australia
                [8 ]Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, Australia
                [9 ]Australian Respiratory and Sleep Medicine Institute, Adelaide, Australia
                Article
                10.1093/sleep/zsz248
                a8cd2363-358c-4962-82d1-81c1ff067795
                © 2019

                https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model


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