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      Additional effect of etanercept or infliximab on the liver function tests of patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a cohort study

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          One of the most important long-term side effects of therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the elevation of liver function tests, with earlier studies reporting an elevation of more than 1× the upper limit of normal (>1 × ULN). The current study expands the literature by comparing the trends of transaminase changes caused by conventional and biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs).

          Patients and methods

          The drug categories examined were methotrexate (MTX) and all other nonbiologic DMARDs. Where RA patients exhibited inadequate response to conventional DMARDs (cDMARDs), we added biologic DMARDs (bDMARDs) to the treatment. We compared the trend of changes in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in the patients receiving MTX with the trend observed in the patients whose treatment encompassed both bDMARDs and MTX. The comparison was conducted using random intercept models, which are a type of linear mixed effects model.

          Results

          This work involved 512 RA patients (MTX: 450, MTX + infliximab [INF]: 26, MTX + etanercept [ETA]: 36), whose ALT and/or AST levels were measured in 1,786 visits (MTX: 1,543, MTX + INF: 107, MTX + ETA: 136). ALT and/or AST elevations greater than 1 × ULN were observed in 344 (19.3%) visits (MTX: 295 [19.1%], MTX + INF/ETA: 49 [20.2%]). In this study, the trends of ALT and AST changes increased when receiving MTX, while the INF/ETA addition decreased these trends. The random intercept models indicated that changes in the mean ALT levels were significantly different over the time for MTX and MTX + INF/ETA groups (β [SE] =−0.190 [0.093], P= 0.040) but changes in the mean AST levels were nonsignificantly different over the time for such groups (β [SE] =−0.099 [0.064], P=0.120).

          Conclusion

          Despite a higher incidence of elevated transaminases during the use of MTX + INF/ETA, the combination of INF/ETA with MTX reduced transaminase levels and returned ALT levels to normal concentrations.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Comparison of methotrexate monotherapy with a combination of methotrexate and etanercept in active, early, moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis (COMET): a randomised, double-blind, parallel treatment trial.

          Remission and radiographic non-progression are goals in the treatment of early rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of the combination of methotrexate and etanercept in active early rheumatoid arthritis (COMET) trial is to compare remission and radiographic non-progression in patients treated with methotrexate monotherapy or with methotrexate plus etanercept. 542 outpatients who were methotrexate-naive and had had early moderate-to-severe rheumatoid arthritis for 3-24 months were randomly assigned to receive either methotrexate alone titrated up from 7.5 mg a week to a maximum of 20 mg a week by week 8 or methotrexate (same titration) plus etanercept 50 mg a week. Coprimary endpoints at 52 weeks were remission measured with the disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) and radiographic non-progression measured with modified total Sharp score. Treatment was allocated with a computerised randomisation and enrolment system, which masked both participants and carers. Analysis was done by modified intention to treat with last observation carried forward for missing data. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00195494). 274 participants were randomly assigned to receive combined treatment and 268 methotrexate alone. 132 of 265 (50%, 95% CI 44-56%) patients who took combined treatment and were available for assessment achieved clinical remission compared with 73 of 263 (28%, 23-33%) taking methotrexate alone (effect difference 22.05%, 95%CI 13.96-30.15%, p 5.1). 196 of 246 (80%, 75-85%) and 135 of 230 (59%, 53-65%), respectively, achieved radiographic non-progression (20.98%, 12.97-29.09%, p<0.0001). Serious adverse events were similar between groups. Both clinical remission and radiographic non-progression are achievable goals in patients with early severe rheumatoid arthritis within 1 year of combined treatment with etanercept plus methotrexate. Wyeth Research.
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            Biologic and oral disease-modifying antirheumatic drug monotherapy in rheumatoid arthritis

            Clinical evidence demonstrates coadministration of tumour necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) agents and methotrexate (MTX) is more efficacious than administration of TNFi agents alone in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, leading to the perception that coadministration of MTX with all biologic agents or oral disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs is necessary for maximum efficacy. Real-life registry data reveal approximately one-third of patients taking biologic agents use them as monotherapy. Additionally, an analysis of healthcare claims data showed that when MTX was prescribed in conjunction with a biologic agent, as many as 58% of patients did not collect the MTX prescription. Given this discrepancy between perception and real life, we conducted a review of the peer-reviewed literature and rheumatology medical congress abstracts to determine whether data support biologic monotherapy as a treatment option for patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Our analysis suggests only for tocilizumab is there evidence that the efficacy of biologic monotherapy is comparable with combination therapy with MTX.
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              A genetic study on C5-TRAF1 and progression of joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis

              Introduction The severity of joint damage progression in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is heritable. Several genetic variants have been identified, but together explain only part of the total genetic effect. Variants in Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Interleukin-10 (IL-10), C5-TRAF1, and Fc-receptor-like-3 (FCRL3) have been described to associate with radiographic progression, but results of different studies were incongruent. We aimed to clarify associations of these variants with radiographic progression by evaluating six independent cohorts. Methods In total 5,895 sets of radiographs of 2,493 RA-patients included in six different independent datasets from the Netherlands, Sweden, Spain and North-America were studied in relation to rs1800795 (IL-6), rs1800896 (IL-10), rs2900180 (C5-TRAF1) and rs7528684 (FCRL3). Associations were tested in the total RA-populations and in anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA)-positive and ACPA-negative subgroups per cohort, followed by meta-analyses. Furthermore, the associated region C5-TRAF1 was fine-mapped in the ACPA-negative Dutch RA-patients. Results No associations were found for rs1800795 (IL-6), rs1800896 (IL-10) and rs7528684 (FCRL3) in the total RA-population and after stratification for ACPA. Rs2900180 in C5-TRAF1 was associated with radiographic progression in the ACPA-negative population (P-value meta-analysis = 5.85 × 10−7); the minor allele was associated with more radiographic progression. Fine-mapping revealed a region of 66Kb that was associated; the lowest P-value was for rs7021880 in TRAF1. The P-value for rs7021880 in meta-analysis was 6.35 × 10−8. Previous studies indicate that the region of rs7021880 was associated with RNA expression of TRAF1 and C5. Conclusion Variants in IL-6, IL-10 and FCRL3 were not associated with radiographic progression. Rs2900180 in C5-TRAF1 and linked variants in a 66Kb region were associated with radiographic progression in ACPA-negative RA. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13075-014-0514-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2018
                09 October 2018
                : 14
                : 1943-1950
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, zeraatih@ 123456tums.ac.ir
                [2 ]Rheumatic Diseases Research Center (RDRC), Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
                [3 ]Inflammation and Inflammatory Diseases Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Hojjat Zeraati, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1417613151, Iran, Tel +98 216 649 9713, Fax +98 216 649 5936, Email zeraatih@ 123456tums.ac.ir
                Article
                tcrm-14-1943
                10.2147/TCRM.S172836
                6186305
                © 2018 Akhlaghi et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Medicine

                mtx, longitudinal, biologic dmards, dmards, ast, alt

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