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      Anemia and hemoglobin serum levels are associated with exercise capacity and quality of life in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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          Abstract

          Background

          Little is known about the relationship between hemoglobin concentrations, functional status and health related quality of life (HRQL) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of anemia and the association of hemoglobin with shortness of breath, exercise capacity, muscle strength and HRQL, in COPD patients.

          Methods

          A total of 105 COPD patients (77 males, 71.6 ± 9.2 years) were studied. Patients were classified as anemic and non anemic using the WHO criteria. We used the Medical Research Council Dyspnoea scale (MRCs) to measure shortness of breath. Exercise capacity was assessed using the six minute walking distance (6MWD) and the peak of VO2 during the maximal cycle ergometer test (VO2 max). We used the Quadriceps and Handgrip strength assessment to determine muscle strength. The Saint George Respiratory Questionnaire was used to investigate HRQL. The physiological/functional characteristics of the two groups were compared. Regression models adjusting for confounders examined the independent association of anemia and of hemoglobin levels with clinical and functional outcomes.

          Results

          Anemic patients (12.3%) showed a significantly higher MRCs, a lower 6MWD, VO2 max, and a worse quality of life. On the contrary, there was no difference in muscle strength between the two groups. In the regression models, hemoglobin was independently associated with reduced exercise capacity and HRQL.

          Conclusions

          Anemia in COPD was a risk factor for poorer exercise capacity and quality of life, and these outcomes were linearly associated with hemoglobin. Our results should stimulate further research into exploring whether increasing hemoglobin has a beneficial effect on the outcomes in COPD.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Standards for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with COPD: a summary of the ATS/ERS position paper.

           W MacNee,  ,  B Celli (2004)
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            Association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and systemic inflammation: a systematic review and a meta-analysis.

            Individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, and muscle wasting. Systemic inflammation may be involved in the pathogenesis of these disorders. A study was undertaken to determine whether systemic inflammation is present in stable COPD. A systematic review was conducted of studies which reported on the relationship between COPD, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) or forced vital capacity (FVC), and levels of various systemic inflammatory markers: C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, leucocytes, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukins 6 and 8. Where possible the results were pooled together to produce a summary estimate using a random or fixed effects model. Fourteen original studies were identified. Overall, the standardised mean difference in the CRP level between COPD and control subjects was 0.53 units (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.34 to 0.72). The standardised mean difference in the fibrinogen level was 0.47 units (95% CI 0.29 to 0.65). Circulating leucocytes were also higher in COPD than in control subjects (standardised mean difference 0.44 units (95% CI 0.20 to 0.67)), as were serum TNF-alpha levels (standardised mean difference 0.59 units (95% CI 0.29 to 0.89)). Reduced lung function is associated with increased levels of systemic inflammatory markers which may have important pathophysiological and therapeutic implications for subjects with stable COPD.
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              Interpreting thresholds for a clinically significant change in health status in asthma and COPD.

              Health status (or Health-Related Quality of Life) measurement is an established method for assessing the overall efficacy of treatments for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Such measurements can indicate the potential clinical significance of a treatment's effect. This paper is concerned with methods of estimating the threshold of clinical significance for three widely used health status questionnaires for asthma and COPD: the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire, Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire. It discusses the methodology used to obtain such estimates and shows that the estimates appear to be fairly reliable; ie. for a given questionnaire, similar estimates may be obtained in different studies. These empirically derived thresholds are all mean estimates with confidence intervals around them. The presence of these confidence intervals affects the way in which the thresholds may be used to draw inferences concerning the clinical relevance of clinical trial results. A new system of judging the magnitude of clinically significant results is proposed. Finally, an attempt is made to translate these thresholds into scenarios that illustrate what a clinically significant change with treatment may mean to an individual patient.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                marcello.ferrari@univr.it
                lorenzo.manea@gmail.com
                kamel.anton@gmail.com
                paolabruz@yahoo.it
                mara.84@alice.it
                zambo987@libero.it
                xdarkcatx@gmail.com
                lucia.cazzoletti@univr.it
                pietro.ferrari82@gmai.com
                rtesti@qubisoft.it
                Journal
                BMC Pulm Med
                BMC Pulm Med
                BMC Pulmonary Medicine
                BioMed Central (London )
                1471-2466
                8 May 2015
                8 May 2015
                2015
                : 15
                Affiliations
                [ ]Unit of Respiratory Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Verona, Verona, Italy
                [ ]School of Sports Medicine, University of Padova, Verona, Trieste and Udine Italy
                [ ]Unit of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Verona, Verona, Italy
                [ ]Servizio di Fisiopatologia Respiratoria, Policlinico G.B.Rossi, 37121 Verona, Italy
                Article
                50
                10.1186/s12890-015-0050-y
                4426177
                25952923
                © Ferrari et al.; licensee BioMed Central. 2015

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2015

                Respiratory medicine

                quality of life, copd, exercise capacity, hemoglobin, muscular strenght

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