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      Electrochemical CO 2 reduction with ionic liquids: review and evaluation

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          Abstract

          Evaluation for electrochemical CO 2 reduction to C1 with Ionic liquids.

          Abstract

          The increasing CO 2 emission, as the chief culprit causing numerous environmental problems, could be addressed by the electrochemical CO 2 reduction (CO 2R) to the added-value carbon-based chemicals. Ionic liquids (ILs) as electrolytes and co-catalysts have been widely studied to promote CO 2R owing to their unique advantages. Among the potential products of CO 2R, those only containing one carbon atom, named C1 products, including CO, CH 3OH, CH 4, and syngas, are easier to achieve than others. In this study, we first summarized the research status on CO 2R to these C1 products, and then, the state-of-the-art experimental results were used to evaluate the economic potential and environmental impact. Considering the rapid development in CO 2R, future scenarios with better CO 2R performances were reasonably assumed to predict the future business for each product. Among the studied C1 products, the research focuses on CO, where satisfactory results have been achieved. The evaluation shows that producing CO via CO 2R is the only profitable route at present. CH 3OH and syngas of H 2/CO (1 : 1) as the targeted products can become profitable in the foreseen future. In addition, the life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to evaluate the environmental impact, showing that CO 2R to CH 4 is the most environmentally friendly pathway, followed by the syngas of H 2/CO (2 : 1) and CO, and the further improvement of the CO 2R performance can make all the studied C1 products more environmentally friendly. Overall, CO is the most promising product from both economic and environmental impact aspects.

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          Progress and Perspectives of Electrochemical CO2 Reduction on Copper in Aqueous Electrolyte

          To date, copper is the only heterogeneous catalyst that has shown a propensity to produce valuable hydrocarbons and alcohols, such as ethylene and ethanol, from electrochemical CO2 reduction (CO2R). There are variety of factors that impact CO2R activity and selectivity, including the catalyst surface structure, morphology, composition, the choice of electrolyte ions and pH, and the electrochemical cell design. Many of these factors are often intertwined, which can complicate catalyst discovery and design efforts. Here we take a broad and historical view of these different aspects and their complex interplay in CO2R catalysis on Cu, with the purpose of providing new insights, critical evaluations, and guidance to the field with regard to research directions and best practices. First, we describe the various experimental probes and complementary theoretical methods that have been used to discern the mechanisms by which products are formed, and next we present our current understanding of the complex reaction networks for CO2R on Cu. We then analyze two key methods that have been used in attempts to alter the activity and selectivity of Cu: nanostructuring and the formation of bimetallic electrodes. Finally, we offer some perspectives on the future outlook for electrochemical CO2R.
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            Role of renewable energy sources in environmental protection: A review

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              Ionic liquid-mediated selective conversion of CO₂ to CO at low overpotentials.

              Electroreduction of carbon dioxide (CO(2))--a key component of artificial photosynthesis--has largely been stymied by the impractically high overpotentials necessary to drive the process. We report an electrocatalytic system that reduces CO(2) to carbon monoxide (CO) at overpotentials below 0.2 volt. The system relies on an ionic liquid electrolyte to lower the energy of the (CO(2))(-) intermediate, most likely by complexation, and thereby lower the initial reduction barrier. The silver cathode then catalyzes formation of the final products. Formation of gaseous CO is first observed at an applied voltage of 1.5 volts, just slightly above the minimum (i.e., equilibrium) voltage of 1.33 volts. The system continued producing CO for at least 7 hours at Faradaic efficiencies greater than 96%.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                ICMNCZ
                Industrial Chemistry & Materials
                Ind. Chem. Mater.
                Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
                2755-2608
                2755-2500
                2023
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Energy Engineering, Division of Energy Science, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå 97187, Sweden
                [2 ]Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
                [3 ]Centre of Advanced Research in Bionanoconjugates and Biopolymers, Petru Poni Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Aleea Grigore Ghica-Voda, 41A, 700487 Iasi, Romania
                [4 ]State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, 210009, P. R. China
                [5 ]University of Cagliari, Department of Chemical and Geological Sciences, Campus Monserrato, SS 554 bivio per Sestu, 09042, Monserrato, Italy
                [6 ]Metallurgy Department, Swerim AB, 97125, Luleå, Sweden
                [7 ]SMA Mineral AB, 68227, Filipstad, Sweden
                [8 ]CAS Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory of Ionic Liquids Clean Process, State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
                Article
                10.1039/D2IM00055E
                a8eae7dc-4445-4bee-b743-40ca8bbcd4a4
                © 2023

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

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