Estimating the burden of occupational injury in developing countries might provide support for strengthening injury prevention during industrialization. A cross-sectional survey was administered to all households in the Xuân Tiên Commune in Vietnam to collect information on the characteristics of work and injuries in the month before the survey. Of all households, 2615 (99%) completed the survey, comprising 10,416 residents and 5485 workers with 8478 jobs. Respondents reported 591 injuries (an annualized incidence rate [IR] of 681 per 1000 residents), 482 (82%) of which occurred during work activities (annualized IR of 1011 per 1000 full-time equivalents). Nonagricultural work was considerably more hazardous than agricultural work (1033 vs. 844 injuries per 1000 full-time equivalents, respectively). Working at home was prevalent, with 28% of households having a family-owned business. The injury IRs in this study were approximately 10 times higher than those reported in prior studies from Vietnam. High injury rates represent a substantial economic and social burden on a rapidly industrializing country and underscore the importance of injury prevention guided by surveillance data.