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      Virus factories: associations of cell organelles for viral replication and morphogenesis


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          Genome replication and assembly of viruses often takes place in specific intracellular compartments where viral components concentrate, thereby increasing the efficiency of the processes. For a number of viruses the formation of ‘factories’ has been described, which consist of perinuclear or cytoplasmic foci that mostly exclude host proteins and organelles but recruit specific cell organelles, building a unique structure. The formation of the viral factory involves a number of complex interactions and signalling events between viral and cell factors. Mitochondria, cytoplasmic membranes and cytoskeletal components frequently participate in the formation of viral factories, supplying basic and common needs for key steps in the viral replication cycle.

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          Identification of a Novel Coronavirus in Patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

          The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) has recently been identified as a new clinical entity. SARS is thought to be caused by an unknown infectious agent. Clinical specimens from patients with SARS were searched for unknown viruses with the use of cell cultures and molecular techniques. A novel coronavirus was identified in patients with SARS. The virus was isolated in cell culture, and a sequence 300 nucleotides in length was obtained by a polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR)-based random-amplification procedure. Genetic characterization indicated that the virus is only distantly related to known coronaviruses (identical in 50 to 60 percent of the nucleotide sequence). On the basis of the obtained sequence, conventional and real-time PCR assays for specific and sensitive detection of the novel virus were established. Virus was detected in a variety of clinical specimens from patients with SARS but not in controls. High concentrations of viral RNA of up to 100 million molecules per milliliter were found in sputum. Viral RNA was also detected at extremely low concentrations in plasma during the acute phase and in feces during the late convalescent phase. Infected patients showed seroconversion on the Vero cells in which the virus was isolated. The novel coronavirus might have a role in causing SARS. Copyright 2003 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            Nidovirales: a new order comprising Coronaviridae and Arteriviridae.

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              Macromolecular architecture in eukaryotic cells visualized by cryoelectron tomography.

              Electron tomography of vitrified cells is a noninvasive three-dimensional imaging technique that opens up new vistas for exploring the supramolecular organization of the cytoplasm. We applied this technique to Dictyostelium cells, focusing on the actin cytoskeleton. In actin networks reconstructed without prior removal of membranes or extraction of soluble proteins, the cross-linking of individual microfilaments, their branching angles, and membrane attachment sites can be analyzed. At a resolution of 5 to 6 nanometers, single macromolecules with distinct shapes, such as the 26S proteasome, can be identified in an unperturbed cellular environment.

                Author and article information

                Biol Cell
                Biol. Cell
                Biology of the Cell
                Blackwell Publishing Ltd (Oxford, UK )
                09 January 2012
                February 2005
                : 97
                : 2 ( doiID: 10.1111/boc.2005.97.issue-2 )
                : 147-172
                [ 1 ]Centro Nacional de Biotecnología, CSIC, Campus Universidad Autónoma, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain
                [ 2 ]Institute of Infectology, Friedrich‐Loeffler‐Institutes, Federal Research Centre for Virus Diseases of Animals, Boddenblick 5 A, D‐17493, Greifswald‐Insel Riems, Germany
                Author notes
                [*] [* ] (email crisco@ 123456cnb.uam.es ).

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                2005 Société Française des Microscopies and Société Biologie Cellulaire de France

                This article is being made freely available through PubMed Central as part of the COVID-19 public health emergency response. It can be used for unrestricted research re-use and analysis in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source, for the duration of the public health emergency.

                : 14 May 2004
                : 6 July 2004
                Page count
                links-crossref: 323, Figures: 8, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 169, Pages: 26
                Review Article
                Custom metadata
                February 2005
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_JATSPMC version:5.8.0 mode:remove_FC converted:15.04.2020

                Cell biology
                viral factories,viral morphogenesis,viral replication and assembly
                Cell biology
                viral factories, viral morphogenesis, viral replication and assembly


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