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      Inclusão de crianças autistas: um estudo sobre interações sociais no contexto escolar Translated title: Inclusion of children with autism: a study of social interactions within the school context

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          Abstract

          O espectro autista é caracterizado por prejuízos desde os primeiros anos de vida nas áreas de interação social, comunicação e comportamento. Os aspectos relacionados à etiologia, às possibilidades terapêuticas e à inserção em escolas regulares não são conclusivos, dado que evidencia a importância de estudos na área. O presente estudo tem como objetivo analisar as interações sociais de crianças com espectro autista nos contextos de escolas regulares, considerando a mediação das professoras. Participaram deste estudo 42 crianças, das quais quatro crianças têm o diagnóstico de espectro autista, entre três e cinco anos de idade, e quatro professoras de duas escolas regulares particulares. Os resultados demonstraram que a mediação das professoras se caracterizou pelo uso de diretivos linguísticos e apoio físico. A participação das crianças com espectro autista em termos interacionais se caracterizou por comportamentos mais frequentes de olhar pessoas, iniciativa dirigida à ação, resposta adequada e sorriso. Nesse sentido, compreender como as crianças com espectro autista interagem com as pessoas e objetos em ambientes escolares e como são realizadas as mediações pelas professoras nesses momentos são aspectos de grande relevância para a elaboração de estratégias de intervenção que favoreçam a interação social e o processo de inclusão escolar.

          Translated abstract

          The autistic spectrum is characterized by losses beginning in the early years of life in the areas of social interaction, communication and behavior. Aspects related to the etiology, therapeutic possibilities and inclusion in regular schools are not conclusive, which shows the importance of studies in the area. This study aims to analyze social interactions of children with autistic spectrum disorders in mainstream school contexts, considering the mediation of teachers. The participants were 42 children, of whom four children had been diagnosed with autistic spectrum disorder, between three and five years old, and four teachers from two regular private schools. The results showed that the mediation of the teachers was characterized by the use of linguistic directives and physical support. The participation of children with autistic spectrum disorder in interactional terms was characterized most frequently by behaviors such as looking at people, initiative directed to action, appropriate response and smile. In this sense, understanding how children with autistic spectrum disorders interact with people and objects in school settings and how mediations are conducted by teachers in such moments is highly relevant for elaborating intervention strategies to promote social interaction and the process of school inclusion.

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          Most cited references 52

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            Origens culturais da aquisição do conhecimento humano

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              Low back pain in adult female caregivers of children with physical disabilities.

              Low back pain (LBP) in occupational settings has been studied extensively. There are fewer studies on LBP in domestic settings, especially in an informal caregiving setting. To compare the prevalence of LBP in adult female primary caregivers of children with physical disabilities who need assistance with transfers (eg, moving from a bed to a wheelchair) with the prevalence of LBP in adult female primary caregivers of children with nondisabling medical illnesses and to evaluate the factors associated with LBP. A 15-minute, self-administered, cross-sectional survey. University-based clinics. Subjects Ninety consecutive adult female caregivers of children presenting to a pediatric physical medicine and rehabilitation clinic and 23 consecutive adult female caregivers of children presenting to a pediatric endocrine clinic were studied. General exclusionary criteria included the following: male sex, a history of back surgery or fracture, the caregiver was younger than 18 years old at the time of the completion of the questionnaire, or the caregiver was caring for any child younger than 2 years old. Caregivers visiting the pediatric endocrine clinic were excluded if they were caring for 1 or more children needing assistance with transfers. The dependent variable was the presence of LBP. The independent variables were mood, work status, amount of lifting at work, physical functioning of the child, demographic variables of the caregiver, and demographic variables of the child. The prevalence of having LBP (71.1%) in the physical medicine and rehabilitation group is higher than the prevalence (43.5%) in the endocrine clinic group (odds ratio, 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.25-8.21). The prevalence of having LBP (80.3%) when the child required physical assistance with transfers was significantly higher than the prevalence (40.5%) when the child did not require physical assistance with transfers (odds ratio, 2.56; 95% confidence interval, 2.56-14.0). Forward multiple logistic regression showed that the factors related to LBP in the caregiver were the transferability of the child, mood of the caregiver, and a history of LBP in the caregiver. The prevalence of LBP is higher in caregivers of children needing assistance with transfers. This increased prevalence is associated with the transferability of the child and mood of the caregiver. Results of this study suggest that physical and psychological factors both contribute to the presence of nonoccupational LBP.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ] Clínica Neuroatividade Brazil
                [2 ] Universidade Federal da Paraíba Brazil
                [3 ] Universidade Federal da Paraíba Brazil
                [4 ] Universidade Federal da Paraíba Brazil
                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                rbee
                Revista Brasileira de Educação Especial
                Rev. bras. educ. espec.
                Associação Brasileira de Pesquisadores em Educação Especial - ABPEE (Marília )
                1980-5470
                March 2014
                : 20
                : 1
                : 117-130
                S1413-65382014000100009 10.1590/S1413-65382014000100009

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Product
                Product Information: SciELO Brazil
                Categories
                EDUCATION & EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH
                EDUCATION, SPECIAL

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