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      Nutritional Status and Cardiovascular Health in Female Adolescent Elite-Level Artistic Gymnasts and Swimmers: A Cross-Sectional Study of 31 Athletes


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          Nutritional status is important for health and competitive achievement. This area remains understudied among elite-level female athletes and is appropriate for research. We examined nutritional status and cardiovascular health markers of two groups of female athletes of the same age and competition period, involved in weight-bearing and a non-weight-bearing sport: gymnasts ( n = 17) and swimmers ( n = 14); mean age 17.4 and 16.6 years.


          Body composition and dietary intake were assessed by bioelectrical impedance and Food Frequency Questionnaire. The concentrations of serum micronutrients (B 12, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 (OH) D), calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, and iron), blood lipids, and blood pressure (BP) were measured. Setting and Participants. A cross-sectional study of 31 athletes from Slovenia.


          Gymnasts had higher body mass index (21.5 vs. 20.1 kg/m 2, p=0.043) and lower fat free mass (42.4 vs. 46.6 kg, p=0.024) than swimmers and comparable body fat percentage (22.5 vs. 22.8%). Both groups had low intake of carbohydrates, fibre, polyunsaturated fats, protein (only gymnasts), and micronutrients (11/13 micronutrients gymnasts and 4/13 swimmers) and high intake of free sugars and saturated fats. Both groups also had significantly lower-than-recommended serum levels of 25 (OH) D. All cardiovascular risk factors were within recommended ranges. Gymnasts had higher LDL cholesterol (2.7 vs. 2.2 mmol/L, p < 0.011), and swimmers had higher systolic BP (126 vs. 107 mmHg, p < 0.001).


          Dietary intake especially in gymnasts was suboptimal, which may reflect in anthropometric and cardiovascular marker differences between gymnasts and swimmers.

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            2019 ESC/EAS Guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemias: lipid modification to reduce cardiovascular risk

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              Health Effects of Overweight and Obesity in 195 Countries over 25 Years.

              Background While the rising pandemic of obesity has received significant attention in many countries, the effect of this attention on trends and the disease burden of obesity remains uncertain. Methods We analyzed data from 67.8 million individuals to assess the trends in obesity and overweight prevalence among children and adults between 1980 and 2015. Using the Global Burden of Disease study data and methods, we also quantified the burden of disease related to high body mass index (BMI), by age, sex, cause, and BMI level in 195 countries between 1990 and 2015. Results In 2015, obesity affected 107.7 million (98.7-118.4) children and 603.7 million (588.2- 619.8) adults worldwide. Obesity prevalence has doubled since 1980 in more than 70 countries and continuously increased in most other countries. Although the prevalence of obesity among children has been lower than adults, the rate of increase in childhood obesity in many countries was greater than the rate of increase in adult obesity. High BMI accounted for 4.0 million (2.7- 5.3) deaths globally, nearly 40% of which occurred among non-obese. More than two-thirds of deaths related to high BMI were due to cardiovascular disease. The disease burden of high BMI has increased since 1990; however, the rate of this increase has been attenuated due to decreases in underlying cardiovascular disease death rates. Conclusions The rapid increase in prevalence and disease burden of elevated BMI highlights the need for continued focus on surveillance of BMI and identification, implementation, and evaluation of evidence-based interventions to address this problem.

                Author and article information

                J Nutr Metab
                J Nutr Metab
                Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
                12 January 2021
                : 2021
                1Department of Food Science, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
                2Barbara Jakše Sole Proprietor, Domžale, Slovenia
                3Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, University Children's Hospital, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
                4Centre for Preventive Cardiology, Department of Vascular Diseases, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
                5Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
                6Department of Swimming, Faculty of Sport, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
                7Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Mathematics, Natural Sciences and Information Technologies, University of Primorska, Koper, Slovenia
                8Department of Gymnastics, Faculty of Sport, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Eric Gumpricht

                Copyright © 2021 Boštjan Jakše et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funded by: Javna Agencija za Raziskovalno Dejavnost RS
                Research Article

                Nutrition & Dietetics
                Nutrition & Dietetics


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