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      TRY plant trait database – enhanced coverage and open access

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630 , 631 , 632 , 633 , 634 , 635 , 359 , 360 , 5 , 130 , 86 , 182 , 636 , 246 , 637 , 1 , 2 , 356 , The Nutrient Network
      Global Change Biology
      Wiley

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          Abstract

          Plant traits-the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants-determine how plants respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, and influence ecosystem properties and their benefits and detriments to people. Plant trait data thus represent the basis for a vast area of research spanning from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology, to biodiversity conservation, ecosystem and landscape management, restoration, biogeography and earth system modelling. Since its foundation in 2007, the TRY database of plant traits has grown continuously. It now provides unprecedented data coverage under an open access data policy and is the main plant trait database used by the research community worldwide. Increasingly, the TRY database also supports new frontiers of trait-based plant research, including the identification of data gaps and the subsequent mobilization or measurement of new data. To support this development, in this article we evaluate the extent of the trait data compiled in TRY and analyse emerging patterns of data coverage and representativeness. Best species coverage is achieved for categorical traits-almost complete coverage for 'plant growth form'. However, most traits relevant for ecology and vegetation modelling are characterized by continuous intraspecific variation and trait-environmental relationships. These traits have to be measured on individual plants in their respective environment. Despite unprecedented data coverage, we observe a humbling lack of completeness and representativeness of these continuous traits in many aspects. We, therefore, conclude that reducing data gaps and biases in the TRY database remains a key challenge and requires a coordinated approach to data mobilization and trait measurements. This can only be achieved in collaboration with other initiatives.

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          Rebuilding community ecology from functional traits.

          There is considerable debate about whether community ecology will ever produce general principles. We suggest here that this can be achieved but that community ecology has lost its way by focusing on pairwise species interactions independent of the environment. We assert that community ecology should return to an emphasis on four themes that are tied together by a two-step process: how the fundamental niche is governed by functional traits within the context of abiotic environmental gradients; and how the interaction between traits and fundamental niches maps onto the realized niche in the context of a biotic interaction milieu. We suggest this approach can create a more quantitative and predictive science that can more readily address issues of global change.
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            Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum.

            Wood performs several essential functions in plants, including mechanically supporting aboveground tissue, storing water and other resources, and transporting sap. Woody tissues are likely to face physiological, structural and defensive trade-offs. How a plant optimizes among these competing functions can have major ecological implications, which have been under-appreciated by ecologists compared to the focus they have given to leaf function. To draw together our current understanding of wood function, we identify and collate data on the major wood functional traits, including the largest wood density database to date (8412 taxa), mechanical strength measures and anatomical features, as well as clade-specific features such as secondary chemistry. We then show how wood traits are related to one another, highlighting functional trade-offs, and to ecological and demographic plant features (growth form, growth rate, latitude, ecological setting). We suggest that, similar to the manifold that tree species leaf traits cluster around the 'leaf economics spectrum', a similar 'wood economics spectrum' may be defined. We then discuss the biogeography, evolution and biogeochemistry of the spectrum, and conclude by pointing out the major gaps in our current knowledge of wood functional traits.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Global Change Biology
                Glob Change Biol
                Wiley
                1354-1013
                1365-2486
                December 02 2019
                January 2020
                December 31 2019
                January 2020
                : 26
                : 1
                : 119-188
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry Jena Germany
                [2 ]German Center for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle‐Jena‐Leipzig Leipzig Germany
                [3 ]Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Vegetal (IMBIV), and Factulad de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales Universidad Nacional de Córdoba Córdoba Argentina
                [4 ]Univ. Grenoble AlpesCNRSUniv. Savoie Mont BlancLECA Grenoble France
                [5 ]Imperial College London UK
                [6 ]Ecologie Systématique Evolution CNRS AgroParisTech University of Paris‐Sud Université Paris‐Saclay Orsay France
                [7 ]Department of Zoology University of Oxford Oxford UK
                [8 ]Balliol College University of Oxford Oxford UK
                [9 ]University of Helsinki Helsinki Finland
                [10 ]Department of Range Management Faculty of Natural Resources and Marine Sciences Tarbiat Modares University Noor Iran
                [11 ]University of Roma Tre Rome Italy
                [12 ]Biodiversity Conservation Laboratory Department of Environment University of the Aegean Mytilene Greece
                [13 ]Institute of Ecology and Evolution University of Bern Bern Switzerland
                [14 ]Tartu Observatory University of Tartu Tartumaa Estonia
                [15 ]Graduate School of Life Sciences Tohoku University Sendai Japan
                [16 ]Aix Marseille Univ Univ Avignon CNRS IRD IMBE Marseille France
                [17 ]Universidad de Jaén Jaén Spain
                [18 ]Instituto Alexander Von Humboldt Bogota Colombia
                [19 ]National Institute of Amazonian Research (INPA) Manaus Brazil
                [20 ]Botany Department Faculty of Science Suez Canal University Ismailia Egypt
                [21 ]Université de Lorraine Lorraine France
                [22 ]Forest Sciences University of Göttingen Göttingen Germany
                [23 ]Centre for Biodiversity and Sustainable Land‐use University of Göttingen Göttingen Germany
                [24 ]Instituto de Investigaciones en Recursos Naturales, Agroecología y Desarrollo Rural (IRNAD) Universidad Nacional de Río Negro El Bolsón Argentina
                [25 ]Conicet‐Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas Buenos Aires Argentina
                [26 ]University of Guelph Guelph ON Canada
                [27 ]Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland WA USA
                [28 ]University of Massachusetts Amherst Amherst MA USA
                [29 ]Centre for Crop Systems Analysis Wageningen University Wageningen The Netherlands
                [30 ]University of Victoria Victoria BC Canada
                [31 ]College of Science & Engineering James Cook University Smithfield Qld Australia
                [32 ]University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh PA USA
                [33 ]Centre for Forest Research Institute for Integrative Systems Biology Université Laval Quebec QC Canada
                [34 ]Arizona State University Tempe AZ USA
                [35 ]Department of Biology University of North Florida Jacksonville FL USA
                [36 ]ARC Centre for Excellence in Plant Energy Biology Australian National University Acton ACT Australia
                [37 ]Great Lakes Forestry Centre Canadian Forest Service Natural Resources Canada Sault Ste. Marie ON Canada
                [38 ]Department of Biology University of Copenhagen Copenhagen Denmark
                [39 ]Department of Ecology University of Innsbruck Innsbruck Austria
                [40 ]School of Geography University of Leeds Leeds UK
                [41 ]Royal Botanic Gardens Kew Richmond UK
                [42 ]Conservation Ecology Groningen Institute for Evolutionary Life Sciences (GELIFES) University of Groningen Groningen The Netherlands
                [43 ]Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management University of California Berkeley Berkeley CA USA
                [44 ]Biology Department Wilfrid Laurier University Waterloo ON Canada
                [45 ]Department of Forest ResourcesUniversity of Minnesota St. Paul MN USA
                [46 ]AgroParisTech Paris France
                [47 ]Lancaster Environment Centre Lancaster University Lancaster UK
                [48 ]College of Life and Environmental Sciences University of Exeter Penryn UK
                [49 ]School of Biological Sciences The University of Adelaide Adelaide SA Australia
                [50 ]CIRAD UMR SELMET Montpellier France
                [51 ]SELMET CIRAD INRA Univ Montpellier Montpellier SupAgro France
                [52 ]University of California at Berkeley Berkeley CA USA
                [53 ]Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture Colorado State University Fort Collins CO USA
                [54 ]Department of Green Chemistry and Technology Ghent University Gent Belgium
                [55 ]Department of Environment Ghent University Gent Belgium
                [56 ]Department of Life and Environmental Sciences Botany Division University of Cagliari Cagliari Italy
                [57 ]Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ Leipzig Germany
                [58 ]Royal Museum for Central Africa Tervuren Belgium
                [59 ]University of Bayreuth Bayreuth Germany
                [60 ]Groningen Institute of Archaeology (GIA) University of Groningen Groningen The Netherlands
                [61 ]Department of Biological Sciences University of Tennessee Knoxville TN USA
                [62 ]Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory Crested Butte CO USA
                [63 ]Département des Science Université du Québec À Montréal Montreal QC Canada
                [64 ]Department of Biogeography University of Bayreuth Bayreuth Germany
                [65 ]Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales‐CSIC Madrid Spain
                [66 ]Université Laval Quebec QC Canada
                [67 ]Instituto de Ciencias Naturales Universidad Nacional de Colombia Bogota Colombia
                [68 ]Fundación Natura Bogota Colombia
                [69 ]Environmental Change Institute University of Oxford Oxford UK
                [70 ]Laboratório de Estudos em Vegetação Campestre (LEVCamp) Programa de Pós‐Graduação em Botânica Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Porto Alegre Brazil
                [71 ]Institut für Biologie Freie Universität Berlin Berlin Germany
                [72 ]Berlin‐Brandenburg Institute of Advanced Biodiversity Research (BBIB) Berlin Germany
                [73 ]Laboratório de Ecologia Funcional de Comunidades (LABEF) Departamento de Botânica Universidade Federal do Paraná Curitiba Brazil
                [74 ]School of Informatics, Computing, and Cyber Systems Northern Arizona University Flagstaff AZ USA
                [75 ]Institute of Ecology and Evolution Friedrich Schiller University Jena Jena Germany
                [76 ]ETH Zurich Zurich Switzerland
                [77 ]Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences University of Gothenburg Gothenburg Sweden
                [78 ]PIAF INRA Université Clermont‐Auvergne Clermont‐Ferrand France
                [79 ]Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Porto Alegre Brazil
                [80 ]School of Life Sciences Arizona State University Tempe AZ USA
                [81 ]USDA‐ARS Rangeland Resources & Systems Research Unit Fort Collins CO USA
                [82 ]Grupo de Investigación en Biodiversidad y Dinámica de Ecosistémas Tropicales ‐ Universidad del Tolima Ibagué Colombia
                [83 ]Isotope Bioscience Laboratory ‐ ISOFYS Ghent University Gent Belgium
                [84 ]School of Forest Resources and Conservation University of Florida Gainesville FL USA
                [85 ]Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre Frankfurt am Main Germany
                [86 ]Department of Biological Sciences Goethe Universität Frankfurt Frankfurt am Main Germany
                [87 ]Department of Biological Sciences University of Cape Town Cape Town South Africa
                [88 ]SAEON Fynbos Node Claremont South Africa
                [89 ]Pacific Northwest National Laboratory College Park MD USA
                [90 ]School of Geography, Geology and Environment University of Leicester Leicester UK
                [91 ]Department of Environmental Science Institute for Water and Wetland Research Radboud University Nijmegen The Netherlands
                [92 ]Laboratório de Ecologia Vegetal (LEVEG) Programa de Pós‐Graduação em Ecologia Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Porto Alegre Brazil
                [93 ]Archbold Biological Station's Buck Island Ranch FLLake Placid USA
                [94 ]Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology University of Connecticut Storrs CT USA
                [95 ]University of Tasmania Hobart Tas. Australia
                [96 ]Facultad de Ciencias Forestales Universidad Nacional de Santiago del Estero Santiago del Estero Argentina
                [97 ]Institute of Landscape and Plant Ecology University of Hohenheim Stuttgart Germany
                [98 ]School of Geography University of Nottingham Nottingham UK
                [99 ]Department of Geography and Geology Kingston University Kingston upon Thames UK
                [100 ]Institute of Biology/Geobotany and Botanical Garden Martin Luther University Halle‐Wittenberg Halle Germany
                [101 ]Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias Hídricas Universidad Nacional del Litoral (FICH-UNL) Santa Fe Argentina
                [102 ]AMAP CIRAD CNRS IRD INRA Université de Montpellier Montpellier France
                [103 ]AMAP IRD Herbier de Nouvelle‐Calédonie Nouméa New Caledonia
                [104 ]University of Toronto Scarborough Scarborough ON Canada
                [105 ]Friedrich‐Schiller‐Universität Jena Jena Germany
                [106 ]Section for Ecoinformatics and Biodiversity Department of Bioscience Aarhus University Aarhus Denmark
                [107 ]Center for Biodiversity Dynamics in a Changing World (BIOCHANGE) Department of Bioscience Aarhus University Aarhus Denmark
                [108 ]New Jersey Institute of Technology Newark NJ USA
                [109 ]Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences University of Rostock Rostock Germany
                [110 ]Sapienza University of Rome Rome Italy
                [111 ]School of Biological Sciences University of Aberdeen Aberdeen UK
                [112 ]Center for Ecosystem Science and Society Northern Arizona University Flagstaff AZ USA
                [113 ]School of Civil and Environmental Engineering Yonsei University Seoul Korea
                [114 ]Departamento de Botânica SCB UFPR – Federal University of Parana Curitiba Brazil
                [115 ]Centro Politécnico Universidade Federal do Paraná Curitiba Brazil
                [116 ]Dipartimento di Bioscienze Università degli Studi di Milano Milano Italy
                [117 ]IRSTEA Aix‐en‐Provence UMR RECOVER Aix‐Marseille University Aix‐en‐Provence France
                [118 ]Department of Environmental Systems Science ETH Zürich Zürich Switzerland
                [119 ]Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL Birmensdorf Switzerland
                [120 ]Centre of Excellence for Bioscurity Risk Analysis The University of Melbourne Melbourne Vic. Australia
                [121 ]Instituto Pirenaico de Ecología (IPE‐CSIC) Zaragoza Spain
                [122 ]Colgate University Hamilton NY USA
                [123 ]School of Biosciences and Veterinary Medicine Plant Diversity and Ecosystems Management Unit University of Camerino Camerino Italy
                [124 ]Department of Plant Biology and Ecology University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU Bilbao Spain
                [125 ]Departamento de Geociencias y Medio Ambiente Universidad Nacional de Colombia Medellin Colombia
                [126 ]Department of Chemistry, Life Sciences and Environmental Sustainability University of Parma Parma Italy
                [127 ]CATIE‐Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza Turrialba Costa Rica
                [128 ]Univ. Bordeaux INRAE BIOGECO Cestas France
                [129 ]Department of Geography King's College London London UK
                [130 ]Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior University of Minnesota St. Paul MN USA
                [131 ]Department of Biotechnology and Life Sciences University of Insubria Varese Italy
                [132 ]BIGEA Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences Alma Mater Studiorum – University of Bologna Bologna Italy
                [133 ]Escuela de Biología Universidad de Costa Rica San José Costa Rica
                [134 ]The University of Arizona Tucson AZ USA
                [135 ]Institute of Arctic Biology University of Alaska Fairbanks Fairbanks AK USA
                [136 ]Royal Botanic Gardens Kew West Sussex UK
                [137 ]Department of Biology Colorado State University Fort Collins CO USA
                [138 ]WSL Swiss Federal Research Institute Birmensdorf Switzerland
                [139 ]Faculty of Forestry University of British Columbia Vancouver BC Canada
                [140 ]CREA – Research Centre for Forestry and Wood Arezzo Italy
                [141 ]Hawkesbury Institute for the Environment Western Sydney University Sydney NSW Australia
                [142 ]Jungwon University Goesan Chungbuk Korea
                [143 ]Department of Botany and Zoology Masaryk University Brno Czech Republic
                [144 ]Department of Biology University of Pisa Pisa Italy
                [145 ]Department of Agriculture and Forest Engineering (EAGROF) University of Lleida Lleida Spain
                [146 ]Joint Research Unit CTFC – AGROTECNIO Solsona Spain
                [147 ]University of California Riverside Riverside CA USA
                [148 ]Faculty of Environmental Sciences University of Life Sciences Prague Praha‐Suchdol Czech Republic
                [149 ]Institute of Botany Czech Academy of Sciences Třeboň Czech Republic
                [150 ]Department of Plant Sciences University of Cambridge Cambridge UK
                [151 ]Systems Ecology Department of Ecological Science Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam The Netherlands
                [152 ]School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences UNSW Sydney Sydney NSW Australia
                [153 ]Faculté de foresterie, de géographie et de géomatique Université Laval Quebec QC Canada
                [154 ]Jonah Ventures Boulder CO USA
                [155 ]Centro de Modelación y Monitoreo de Ecosistemas Universidad Mayor Santiago Chile
                [156 ]Department of Wildlife Fish and Environmental Studies Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Umeå Sweden
                [157 ]Centre for African Conservation Ecology Department of Zoology Nelson Mandela University Port Elizabeth South Africa
                [158 ]MTA Centre for Ecological Research Tihany Hungary
                [159 ]Biotechnical Faculty University of Ljubljana Ljubljana Slovenia
                [160 ]Université de Lorraine AgroParisTech INRAE UMR Silva Nancy France
                [161 ]Santa Catarina State University Lages SC Brazil
                [162 ]Department of Geography, Environment, and Spatial Sciences Michigan State University East Lansing MI USA
                [163 ]Eurac Research Institute for Alpine Environment Bozen‐Bolzano Italy
                [164 ]Institute of Biology of Komi Science Centre of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences Syktyvkar Komi Republic Russia
                [165 ]University of Science – Vietnam National University Ho Chi Minh City Ho Chi Minh City Vietnam
                [166 ]Graduate School of Agriculture Kyoto University Kyoto Japan
                [167 ]Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies Kyoto University Kyoto Japan
                [168 ]Swedish Species Information Centre Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Uppsala Sweden
                [169 ]Department of Plant and Soil Sciences University of Pretoria Pretoria South Africa
                [170 ]Department of Terrestrial Ecology Netherlands Institute of Ecology Wageningen The Netherlands
                [171 ]Department Computational Landscape Ecology UFZ – Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig Germany
                [172 ]Department Computational Hydrosystems UFZ – Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig Germany
                [173 ]Department of Landscape Architecture and Rural Systems Engineering Seoul National University Seoul Republic of Korea
                [174 ]Institute of Temperate Forest Sciences (ISFORT) Ripon QC Canada
                [175 ]UQODepartment of Natural SciencesRipon QC Canada
                [176 ]Cirad UMR EcoFoG (Agroparistech, CNRS, INRA, Université des Antilles, Université de la Guyane) Kourou French Guiana France
                [177 ]Institut für Physische Geographie, Biogeography and Biodiversity Lab Goethe‐Universität Frankfurt Frankfurt am Main Germany
                [178 ]Department of Biology University of Florida Gainesville FL USA
                [179 ]Iluka Resources Perth WA Australia
                [180 ]School of Biological Sciences The University of Western Australia Perth WA Australia
                [181 ]Department of Biological Sciences Macquarie University Sydney NSW Australia
                [182 ]Department of Botany and Molecular Evolution Senckenberg Research Institute and Natural History Museum Frankfurt am Main Germany
                [183 ]Department of Botany and Biodiversity Research University of Vienna Vienna Austria
                [184 ]Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ Halle Germany
                [185 ]Department of Botany Faculty of Sciences University of South Bohemia Ceske Budejovice Czech Republic
                [186 ]Department of Environmental and Life Sciences – Biology Karlstad University Karlstad Sweden
                [187 ]Quantitative Plant Ecology and Biodiversity Research Laboratory Department of Biology Faculty of Science Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Mashhad Iran
                [188 ]Flathead Lake Biological Station University of Montana Polson MT USA
                [189 ]School of Sustainability Arizona State University Tempe AZ USA
                [190 ]Programa Nacional de Pós‐Doutorado (PNPD) Programa de Pós Graduação em Ecologia Institute of Biology University of Campinas UNICAMP Brazil
                [191 ]Institute for Ecosystem Research/Geobotany Kiel University Kiel Germany
                [192 ]School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences – University of Birmingham Birmingham UK
                [193 ]Institute for Plant Ecology Justus Liebig University Giessen Germany
                [194 ]Spanish National Research Council – CSIC Catalonia Spain
                [195 ]CREAF Catalonia Spain
                [196 ]Department of Biology – FFCLRP/USP Ribeirão Preto Brazil
                [197 ]University of Maryland College Park MD USA
                [198 ]Campus da Zapateira University of A Coruña A Coruña Spain
                [199 ]Evolution & Ecology Research Centre, and School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences UNSW Sydney Sydney NSW Australia
                [200 ]Rutgers University Piscataway NJ USA
                [201 ]Peking University Beijing China
                [202 ]Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy University of Sassari Sassari Italy
                [203 ]Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Molecular Biology and Genetics Ordu University Ordu Turkey
                [204 ]State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro‐ecosystems College of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology Lanzhou University Lanzhou China
                [205 ]Centro Forestal Tropical Bajo Calima Universidad del Tolima Buenaventura Colombia
                [206 ]Embrapa Amazônia Oriental Belém Brazil
                [207 ]Instituto de Biociências Laboratory of Vegetation Ecology Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Rio Claro Brazil
                [208 ]Queensland University of Technology (QUT) Brisbane Australia
                [209 ]School of Life Sciences University of Sussex Brighton UK
                [210 ]Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University Boston MA USA
                [211 ]Laboratoire ECODIV URA IRSTEA/EA 1293 Normandie Université UFR ST Université de Rouen Mont Saint‐Aignan France
                [212 ]Department of Botany Biosciences Institute Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul Porto Alegre Brazil
                [213 ]Unit of Research SPHERES University of Liège Liège Belgium
                [214 ]Géopole de l'Université de Sherbrooke Quebec QC Canada
                [215 ]Theoretical and Experimental Ecology Station CNRS Paul Sabatier University Toulouse Moulis France
                [216 ]School of Earth and Environment Science University of Manchester Manchester UK
                [217 ]Department of Plant Biology Institute of Biology University of Campinas Campinas Brazil
                [218 ]Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte – UFRN Natal RN Brazil
                [219 ]Departamento de Biología y Geología Física y Química Inorgánica y Analítica Universidad Rey Juan Carlos Móstoles Spain
                [220 ]Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria Consejo Nacional de Invetigaciones Científicas y Técnicas Universidad Nacional de La Patagonia Austral Río Gallegos Argentina
                [221 ]UMR 5175 CEFE, Univ. Montpellier, CNRS, EPHE, IRD, Univ. Paul Valéry Montpellier France
                [222 ]Estación Experimental del Zaidín Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas Granada Spain
                [223 ]Estación Biológica de Doñana Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas Sevilla Spain
                [224 ]Universidade Regional de Blumenau Blumenau SC Brazil
                [225 ]INIA‐CIFOR Madrid Spain
                [226 ]School of Biological Sciences Southern Illinois University Carbondale Carbondale IL USA
                [227 ]Center for Biodiversity Management Yungaburra Qld Australia
                [228 ]Instituto Federal de Educação Ciência e Tecnologia do Ceará Crateús Brazil
                [229 ]The Morton Arboretum Lisle IL USA
                [230 ]Water Management and Systems Research Unit United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Fort Collins CO USA
                [231 ]Institute of Integrative Biology ETH Zürich (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology) Zürich Switzerland
                [232 ]Department of Ecology, Evolution & Behavior University of Minnesota Minneapolis MN USA
                [233 ]Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute Front Royal VA USA
                [234 ]CSIC – Institute for Sustainable Agriculture (IAS) Cordoba Spain
                [235 ]Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Matemáticas Universidad del Rosario Bogota Colombia
                [236 ]Departamento de Biología Animal, Biología Vegetal y Ecología Universidad de Jaén Jaén Spain
                [237 ]Norwegian University of Science and Technology NTNU Trondheim Norway
                [238 ]Department of Life Sciences University of Alcalá Alcala de Henares Spain
                [239 ]University of Florida Gainesville FL USA
                [240 ]Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology Harvard University Cambridge MA USA
                [241 ]UCA INRAVetAgro SupUMR Ecosystème Prairial Clermont‐Ferrand France
                [242 ]Departamento de Biología y Geología Física y Química Inorgánica Escuela Superior de Ciencias Experimentales y Tecnología Universidad Rey Juan Carlos Móstoles Spain
                [243 ]Departamento de Ciencias Ambientales y Recursos Naturales Renovables Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas Universidad de Chile Santiago Chile
                [244 ]Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Joint Global Change Research Institute College Park MD USA
                [245 ]The University of Manchester Manchester UK
                [246 ]Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute Balboa, Ancon Republic of Panama
                [247 ]Unit of research SPHERES University of Liège Liège Belgium
                [248 ]College of Resources and Environmental Sciences China Agricultural University Beijing China
                [249 ]Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography Chinese Academy of Sciences Urumqi China
                [250 ]Research Center for Ecology and Environment of Central Asia Chinese Academy of Sciences Urumqi China
                [251 ]University of Reading Reading UK
                [252 ]School of Animal, Plant and Environmental Sciences University of the Witwatersrand Johannesburg South Africa
                [253 ]Applied Ecology Research Group School of Life Sciences Anglia Ruskin University Cambridge UK
                [254 ]Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resource Management Norwegian University of Life Sciences Ås Norway
                [255 ]School of Molecular and Life Sciences Curtin University Perth WA Australia
                [256 ]College of Science Health, Engineering and Education Murdoch University Murdoch WA Australia
                [257 ]South China Botanical Garden Chinese Academy of Sciences Guangzhou China
                [258 ]Carnegie Museum of Natural History Pittsburgh PA USA
                [259 ]Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences University of Tartu Tartu Estonia
                [260 ]Herbarium Haussknecht Friedrich‐Schiller‐Universität Jena Jena Germany
                [261 ]Cirad Université de Montpellier Montpellier France
                [262 ]Institut National Polytehcnique Félix Houphouet‐Boigny INP‐HB Yamoussoukro Ivory Coast
                [263 ]Department of Forest Sciences Transilvania University of Brasov Brasov Romania
                [264 ]BC3 ‐ Basque Centre for Climate Change Scientific Campus of the University of the Basque Country Leioa Spain
                [265 ]Department of Physical Geography Goethe University Frankfurt am Main Germany
                [266 ]Institute of Botany University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna Austria
                [267 ]The Field Museum Chicago IL USA
                [268 ]University Centre Myerscough Preston UK
                [269 ]Department of Biological Sciences Florida International University Miami FL USA
                [270 ]Oak Ridge National Laboratory US Department of Energy Oak Ridge TN
                [271 ]University of California, Santa Cruz Santa Cruz CA USA
                [272 ]Plant Conservation and Population Biology Department of Biology KU Leuven Leuven Belgium
                [273 ]Division of Ecology, Evolution and Biodiversity Conservation Heverlee Belgium
                [274 ]Four Peaks Environmental Science and Data Solutions Wenatchee WA USA
                [275 ]Department of Landscape and Biodiversity Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research (NIBIO) Ås Norway
                [276 ]Kochi University Nankoku Japan
                [277 ]University of Illinois at Chicago Chicago IL USA
                [278 ]Department of Evolutionary Biology, Ecology and Environmental Sciences Biodiversity Research Institute (IRBio) Universitat de Barcelona Barcelona Spain
                [279 ]University of Toronto Toronto ON Canada
                [280 ]Ashiu Forest Research Station Field Science Education and Research Center Kyoto University Kyoto Japan
                [281 ]Institute Botanic Garden Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences Ekaterinburg Russia
                [282 ]Tyumen State University Tyumen Russia
                [283 ]Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge TN USA
                [284 ]Barcelona School of Agricultural Engineering Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya Catalonia Spain
                [285 ]Earth System Science Department Stanford University Stanford CA USA
                [286 ]Global Academy of Agriculture and Food Security University of Edinburgh Midlothian Scotland
                [287 ]Institute of Dendrology Polish Academy of Sciences Kornik Poland
                [288 ]Department of Game Management and Forest Protection Faculty of Forestry Poznan University of Life Sciences Poznan Poland
                [289 ]Geobotany and Botanical Garden Martin Luther University Halle‐Wittenberg Halle Germany
                [290 ]Institute of Systematic Botany and Ecology Ulm University Ulm Germany
                [291 ]BayCEER Department of Disturbance Ecology University of Bayreuth Bayreuth Germany
                [292 ]Department of Biology University of Copenhagen Frederiksberg C Denmark
                [293 ]Plant Ecophysiology & Evolution Group, Guangxi Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Conservation College of Forestry Guangxi University Nanning Guangxi PR China
                [294 ]State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro‐bioresources Guangxi University Nanning PR China
                [295 ]Terrestrial Ecology Section Department of Biology University of Copenhagen Denmark
                [296 ]State University of Campinas/UNICAMP Campinas SP Brazil
                [297 ]Biological Sciences University of Tasmania Hobart Australia
                [298 ]Department of Zoology School of Mathematical and Natural Science University of Venda Thohoyandou South Africa
                [299 ]Department of Biological Sciences DST/NRF Centre of Excellence Percy FitzPatrick Institute of African Ornithology University of Cape Town Rondebosch South Africa
                [300 ]Cibodas Botanical Garden – Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) Jl. Kebun Raya Cibodas Cipanas Indonesia
                [301 ]Centre of Excellence for Biosecurity Risk Analysis (CEBRA) School Of Biosciences University of Melbourne Parkville Vic. Australia
                [302 ]Evolutionary Ecology of Plants Department Biology Philipps‐University Marburg Marburg Germany
                [303 ]Department of Bioscience University Salzburg Salzburg Austria
                [304 ]PERSYST Department CIRAD Montpellier Cedex 5 France
                [305 ]BC Ministry Forest, Lands, Natural Resource Operations and Rural Development Dawson Creek BC Canada
                [306 ]Humboldt State University Arcata CA USA
                [307 ]Institute of Botany The Czech Academy of Sciences Prùhonice Czech Republic
                [308 ]Department of Botany Faculty of Science Charles University Prague Czech Republic
                [309 ]Institute of Geography and Geoecology Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Karlsruhe Germany
                [310 ]Samara National Research University Samara Russia
                [311 ]CAVElab ‐ Computational and Applied Vegetation Ecology Ghent University Ghent Belgium
                [312 ]Institute of Plant Sciences Bern Switzerland
                [313 ]Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute Tsukuba Japan
                [314 ]Kenyon College Gambier OH USA
                [315 ]Department of Biology University of Garmian Kalar Iraq
                [316 ]School of Biological Sciences and Center for Ecology Southern Illinois University Carbondale Carbondale IL USA
                [317 ]Department of Ecology and Evolution State University of New York at Stony Brook Stony Brook NY USA
                [318 ]Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED) University of Amsterdam Amsterdam The Netherlands
                [319 ]Instituto de Investigaciones en Biodiversidad y Medioambiente (INIBIOMA) CONICET Bariloche Argentina
                [320 ]Departamento de Ecología Universidad Nacional del Comahue Bariloche Argentina
                [321 ]Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences Weizmann Institute of Science Rehovot Israel
                [322 ]Landscape Ecology Group Institute of Biology and Environmental Sciences University of Oldenburg Oldenburg Germany
                [323 ]Faculty of Sciences Charles University Praha Czech Republic
                [324 ]Department of Geosciences and Natural Resources Western Carolina University Cullowhee NC USA
                [325 ]Department of Community Ecology Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research‐UFZ Halle (Saale) Germany
                [326 ]Health and Environmental Sciences Xi'an Jiaotong Liverpool University Suzhou Jiangsu China
                [327 ]Hokkaido University Sapporo Japan
                [328 ]Graduate School of Environment and Information Sciences Yokohama National University Yokohama Japan
                [329 ]Technical University of Munich Freising Germany
                [330 ]Institut d Estudis Andorrans Andorra
                [331 ]Smithsonian Environmental Research Center Edgewater MD USA
                [332 ]Department of Geography Humboldt University of Berlin Berlin Germany
                [333 ]Biodiversity, Macroecology and Biogeography University of Goettingen Göttingen Germany
                [334 ]Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology University of California Los Angeles CA USA
                [335 ]Wageningen University & Research Wageningen The Netherlands
                [336 ]Land Life Company Amsterdam The Netherlands
                [337 ]Centre of Biodiversity and Sustainable Land Use (CBL) University of Goettingen Göttingen Germany
                [338 ]Martin Luther University Halle‐Wittenberg Halle Germany
                [339 ]Plant Physiology Division Coconut Research Institute of Sri Lanka Lunuwila Sri Lanka
                [340 ]Institute of Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation Genomics Ulm University Ulm Germany
                [341 ]Yamagata University Yamagata Japan
                [342 ]Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT) Nairobi Kenya
                [343 ]CIRADUMR Eco&SolsMontpellier France
                [344 ]Eco&Sols CIRAD INRA IRD SupAgro University of Montpellier Montpellier France
                [345 ]Institut de recherche sur les forêts Université du Québec en Abitibi‐Témiscamingue Rouyn‐Noranda QC Canada
                [346 ]Department of Plant Sciences University of Saskatchewan Saskatoon SK Canada
                [347 ]GLORIA‐Coordination Institute for Interdisciplinary Mountain Research Austrian Academy of Sciences & Department of Integrative Biology and Biodiversity Research University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna Vienna Austria
                [348 ]Department of Fisheries, Wildlife and Conservation Biology University of Minnesota St. Paul MN USA
                [349 ]Botany Department University of Wyoming Laramie WY USA
                [350 ]Nelson Mandela University Port Elizabeth South Africa
                [351 ]University of Wisconsin Eau Claire Eau Claire WI USA
                [352 ]Naturalis Biodiversity Center Leiden The Netherlands
                [353 ]Department of Geography University College London London UK
                [354 ]Sun Yat‐sen University Guangzhou China
                [355 ]Yangzhou University Yangzhou Jiangsu China
                [356 ]University of Leipzig Leipzig Germany
                [357 ]Macquarie University North Ryde NSW Australia
                [358 ]University Pablo de Olavide Seville Spain
                [359 ]School of Agriculture and Biology Shanghai Jiao Tong University Shanghai P. R. China
                [360 ]Shanghai Urban Forest Ecosystem Research Station National Forestry and Grassland Administration Shanghai P.R. China
                [361 ]Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona Barcelona Spain
                [362 ]Forest Ecology and Forest Management Group Wageningen University and Research Wageningen The Netherlands
                [363 ]World Agroforestry (ICRAF) Nairobi Kenya
                [364 ]Dept. Animal Biology, Plant Biology and Ecology University of Jaén Jaén Spain
                [365 ]water@leeds School of Geography University of Leeds Leeds UK
                [366 ]Department for Tisza River Research MTA Centre for Ecological Research DRI Debrecen Hungary
                [367 ]Global Change Research Institute AS CR Brno Czech Republic
                [368 ]Department of Ecology School of Horticulture and Plant Protection Yangzhou University Yangzhou China
                [369 ]State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology Research Centre for Eco‐Environmental Sciences Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing China
                [370 ]University of Copenhagen Copenhagen Denmark
                [371 ]Université du Québec à Trois‐Rivières Trois‐Rivières Canada
                [372 ]Institute of Atmospheric and Earth System Research (INAR) University of Helsinki Helsinki Finland
                [373 ]Natural Resources Institute Finland Espoo Finland
                [374 ]Federal University of Alagoas Maceió AL Brazil
                [375 ]Lakehead University Thunder Bay ON Canada
                [376 ]Department of Physical Geography Stockholm University Stockholm Sweden
                [377 ]Bolin Centre for Climate Research Stockholm Sweden
                [378 ]Universidade Federal do Paraná Curitiba PR Brazil
                [379 ]School of Natural Sciences Bangor University Bangor UK
                [380 ]Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences University of Toronto Scarborough Toronto ON Canada
                [381 ]Centro de Investigación en Biodiversidad y Conservación Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos Morelos Mexico
                [382 ]Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona Catalonia Spain
                [383 ]Centre for Ecology & Hydrology Lancaster Environment Centre Lancaster UK
                [384 ]Manaaki Whenua ‐ Landcare Research Hamilton New Zealand
                [385 ]Department of Scientific Services Gorongosa National Park Beira Sofala Province Mozambique
                [386 ]Institut de recherche en biologie végétale Montréal QC Canada
                [387 ]Université de Montréal Montréal QC Canada
                [388 ]School of Plant Sciences and Food Security George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences Tel Aviv University Tel Aviv Israel
                [389 ]School of Biological Sciences The University of Queensland Brisbane Qld Australia
                [390 ]CSIRO Canberra ACT Australia
                [391 ]Manaaki Whenua – Landcare Research Lincoln New Zealand
                [392 ]Center For Tree Science The Morton Arboretum Lisle IL USA
                [393 ]Department of Botany University of Wisconsin‐Madison Madison WI USA
                [394 ]University of Maine Orono ME USA
                [395 ]Department of Geography, Environment & Society University of Minnesota Minneapolis MN USA
                [396 ]Holden Arboretum Kirtland Ohio USA
                [397 ]Université Libre de Bruxelles Bruxelles Belgium
                [398 ]Institute for Resources Environment and Sustainability University of British Columbia Vancouver BC Canada
                [399 ]Research School of Biology The Australian National University Canberra ACT Australia
                [400 ]School of Geosciences The University of Edinburgh Edinburgh UK
                [401 ]Universidade Federal de Pernambuco Recife PE Brazil
                [402 ]ICREA Barcelona Spain
                [403 ]CREAF Barcelona Spain
                [404 ]INRA UEFP Cestas France
                [405 ]Department of Biology University of Waterloo Waterloo ON Canada
                [406 ]Department of Botany Faculty of Science and Technology University of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary
                [407 ]Natural Resources Canada Canadian Forest Service Northern Forestry Centre Edmonton AB Canada
                [408 ]Department of Botany and Biodiversity Research Centre University of British Columbia Vancouver BC Canada
                [409 ]Tulipan s/n Móstoles‐Madrid Spain
                [410 ]Department of Biology Stanford University Stanford CA USA
                [411 ]Institute of Biology and Environmental Sciences University of Oldenburg Oldenburg Germany
                [412 ]Department of Biology Vrije Universiteit Brussel Brussels Belgium
                [413 ]University of Illinois at Urbana‐Champaign Urbana‐Champaign IL USA
                [414 ]Department of Botany University of Debrecen Hungary
                [415 ]University of Vermont Burlington VT USA
                [416 ]Fundação Zoobotânica do Rio Grande do Sul Porto Allegre Brazil
                [417 ]University of Minnesota St. Paul MN USA
                [418 ]Gembloux Agro‐Bio Tech, Biodiversity and landscape University of Liège Belgium
                [419 ]Department of Invasion Ecology Institute of Botany Czech Academy of Sciences Průhonice Czech Republic
                [420 ]Numerical Terradynamic Simulation Group (NTSG) College of Forestry and Conservation University of Montana Missoula USA
                [421 ]Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and ForestryCentre for Northern Forest Ecosystem Research Thunder Bay ON Canada
                [422 ]Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya Castelldefels Spain
                [423 ]Harry Butler Institute Murdoch University Perth WA Australia
                [424 ]Dept of Geography & Environmental Studies Stellenbosch University, Matieland Stellenbosch South Africa
                [425 ]Geobotany Faculty of Biology University of Freiburg Freiburg im Breisgau Germany
                [426 ]Department of Botany University of Hawai'i Honolulu HI USA
                [427 ]Laboratório de Ecologia Vegetal Departamento de Ecologia Programa de Pós‐Graduação em Ecologia Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Porto Alegre RS Brazil
                [428 ]Laboratoire d'Ecologie Alpine Université Grenoble‐Alpes Grenoble Cedex 9 France
                [429 ]French Institute of Pondicherry Puducherry India
                [430 ]Biology Department Oklahoma State University Oklahoma OK USA
                [431 ]Osaka City University Osaka Japan
                [432 ]Department of Ecology French Institute of Pondicherry Pondicherry India
                [433 ]Galápagos Verde 2050 Charles Darwin Foundation Charles Darwin Research Station Galapagos Ecuador
                [434 ]Forest, Rangeland, and Fire Sciences Department University of Idaho Moscow ID USA
                [435 ]College of Chemistry and Life Sciences Zhejiang Normal University Jinhua China
                [436 ]Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt Bogota Colombia
                [437 ]Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas Bogota Colombia
                [438 ]Estonian University of Life Sciences Tartu Estonia
                [439 ]Plant Ecology University of Bayreuth Bayreuth Germany
                [440 ]Faculty of Biosciences and Aquaculture NORD University Steinkjer Norway
                [441 ]Department of Biology Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NTNU Trondheim Norway
                [442 ]CSIRO Land and Water Hobart Tas Tas. Australia
                [443 ]Institute of Applied Ecology University of Canberra Canberra ACT Australia
                [444 ]University of Innsbruck Innsbruck Austria
                [445 ]River Basin Research Center Gifu University Gifu Gifu Japan
                [446 ]Departamento de Botânica Universidade Federal do Paraná Curitiba Brazil
                [447 ]Institute of Biology Bucharest Romanian Academy Bucharest Romania
                [448 ]Institute of Ecology and Botany MTA Centre for Ecological Research Vácrátót Hungary
                [449 ]Instituto de Biología Tercer Circuito s/n de Ciudad Universitaria Mexico City Mexico
                [450 ]Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Coyoacán Mexico
                [451 ]Department of Ecology and Plant Geography Faculty of Biology Moscow Lomonosov State University Moscow Russia
                [452 ]Kyoto University Kyoto Japan
                [453 ]Facultad de Ingeniería Agroindustrial Universidad de las Américas Quito Equador
                [454 ]Meijo University Nagoya Aichi Japan
                [455 ]Department of Zoology University of British Columbia Vancouver BC Canada
                [456 ]Wageningen Environmental Research Wageningen The Netherlands
                [457 ]Restoration Ecology Technische Universität München München Germany
                [458 ]University of New England Armidale NSW Australia
                [459 ]The James Hutton Institute Aberdeen UK
                [460 ]Department for Molecular Biology and Genetics Democritus University of Thrace Alexandroupolis Greece
                [461 ]University of Tartu Tartu Estonia
                [462 ]Instituto de Ciencias Ambientales y Evolutivas Universidad Austral de Chile Valdivia Chile
                [463 ]Desertification Research Center (CIDE‐CSIC) Valencia Spain
                [464 ]Departamento de Ecología Centro de Investigación en Biodiversidad y Cambio Global (CIBC) Universidad Autónoma de Madrid Madrid Spain
                [465 ]Global Ecology Unit CREAF‐CSIC Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona Barcelona Spain
                [466 ]University of Jaén Jaén Spain
                [467 ]Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA) Río Gallegos Santa Cruz Argentina
                [468 ]Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia Austral (UNPA) CONICET Rio Gallegos Argentina
                [469 ]Pós-graduação em Ecologia e Conservação Universidade Federal do Paraná Curitiba PR Brazil
                [470 ]National Institute for Research‐Development in Forestry Voluntari Romania
                [471 ]Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences (DiSAA) University of Milan Milano Italy
                [472 ]Department of Ecology Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Porto Alegre RS Brazil
                [473 ]Botanical Garden of the Samara University Samara Russia
                [474 ]Plant Sciences (IBG2) Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH Jülich Germany
                [475 ]Institute of Ecology Tallinn University Tallinn Estonia
                [476 ]Ecology and Conservation Biology Institute of Plant Sciences University of Regensburg Regensburg Germany
                [477 ]McGill University Montreal QC Canada
                [478 ]Morton Arboretum Lisle IL USA
                [479 ]Environmental Sciences Division & Climate Change Science Institute Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge TN USA
                [480 ]Research Unit ECOBIO – Ecosystèmes, Biodiversité, Evolution Université Rennes 1/CNRS Rennes France
                [481 ]Department of Ecology Faculty of Science Charles University Prague Czech Republic
                [482 ]CEFE CNRS EPHE Université de Montpellier Université Paul Valéry Montpellier France
                [483 ]TUM School of Life Sciences Weihenstephan Technical University of Munich Freising Germany
                [484 ]School of Life Science and Engineering Southwest University of Science and Technology Mianyang China
                [485 ]Department of Crop and Forest Sciences & Agrotecnio Center Universitat de Lleida Lleida Spain
                [486 ]Universidade Federal do Acre Rio Branco AC Brazil
                [487 ]Manaaki Whenua‐Landcare Research Lincoln New Zealand
                [488 ]Freie Universität Berlin Berlin Germany
                [489 ]The University of Western Australia Crawley WA Australia
                [490 ]Centre for Ecological Research and Forestry Applications (CREAF) Cerdanyola del Vallès Spain
                [491 ]Ecology and Biodiversity Vrije Universiteit Brussel Brussels Belgium
                [492 ]Laboratory of Wood Biology and Xylarium Royal Museum for Central‐Africa (RMCA) Tervuren Belgium
                [493 ]Department of Forestry Mississippi State University Starkville MS USA
                [494 ]School of Biological Sciences University of Southampton Southampton UK
                [495 ]Aquatic Ecology and Environmental Biology Radboud University Nijmegen Nijmegen The Netherlands
                [496 ]School of Forestry & Environmental Studies Yale University New Haven CT USA
                [497 ]Programa de pós‐graduação em Ecologia Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Porto Alegre RS Brasil
                [498 ]Environmental and Climate Sciences Department Brookhaven National Laboratory NYUpton USA
                [499 ]Department of Biological Sciences East Stroudsburg University East Stroudsburg PA USA
                [500 ]Forest Research Group INDEHESA University of Extremadura Plasencia Spain
                [501 ]Physiological Diversity Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ) Leipzig Germany
                [502 ]Laboratorio Nacional de Ciencias de la Sostenibilidad Instituto de Ecología Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Ciudad Universitaria Mexico City Mexico
                [503 ]School of Environmental Sciences University of Guelph Guelph ON Canada
                [504 ]Remote Sensing Laboratories Department of Geography University of Zurich Zurich Switzerland
                [505 ]Research Unit Community Ecology Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL Birmensdorf Switzerland
                [506 ]Department of Research and Geoinformation Swiss National Park Chastè Planta‐Wildenberg Zernez Switzerland
                [507 ]Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH) Wallingford Oxfordshire UK
                [508 ]Natural Resources CanadaCanadian Forest ServiceQuébec QC Canada
                [509 ]Departamento de Dinamica y Gestion Forestal INIA‐CIFOR Madrid Spain
                [510 ]Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute University of Valladolid‐INIA Madrid Spain
                [511 ]Department of Ecology and Evolution University of Lausanne Lausanne Switzerland
                [512 ]Norwegian Institute for Nature Research Trondheim Norway
                [513 ]Departamento de Biología Universidad Nacional de Colombia Bogota Colombia
                [514 ]Oxford University Oxford UK
                [515 ]Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiología de Salamanca (IRNASA‐CSIC) Salamanca Spain
                [516 ]Centre for Functional Ecology Departamento de Ciências da Vida Universidade de Coimbra Coimbra Portugal
                [517 ]Algoma University Sault Ste. Marie ON Canada
                [518 ]Department of Geography University of Zurich Zürich Switzerland
                [519 ]Senckenberg Biodiversität und Klima Forschungszentrum (SBiK‐F) Frankfurt Germany
                [520 ]Palmengarten der Stadt Frankfurt am Main Frankfurt Germany
                [521 ]Entomology III Senckenberg Research Institute and Natural History Museum Frankfurt am Main Germany
                [522 ]Julius‐von‐Sachs‐Institute for Biological Sciences Chair of Ecophysiology and Vegetation Ecology University of Wuerzburg Wuerzburg Germany
                [523 ]Herencia Santa Cruz Bolivia
                [524 ]Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences University of Manchester Manchester UK
                [525 ]South African National Biodiversity Institute Pretoria South Africa
                [526 ]Federal University of Pernambuco Recife PE Brazil
                [527 ]Sharplex Services Edgecomb ME USA
                [528 ]Komarov Botanical Institute RAS St. Petersburg Russia
                [529 ]Research Institute for Humanity and Nature Kyoto Japan
                [530 ]Center for Southeast Asian Studies Kyoto University Kyoto Japan
                [531 ]Université de Sherbrooke Sherbrooke QC Canada
                [532 ]Department of Biology University of Regina Regina SK Canada
                [533 ]Technische Universität Ilmenau Ilmenau Germany
                [534 ]Centre for Applied Ecology “Professor Baeta Neves” (CEABN) School of Agriculture University of Lisbon Lisbon Portugal
                [535 ]Department of Biology Federal University of Lavras Lavras MG Brazil
                [536 ]Department Land, Environment, Agriculture and Forestry Università degli Studi di Padova Padua Italy
                [537 ]Department of Landscape Architecture, Planning and Management Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Alnarp Sweden
                [538 ]Gothenburg Botanical Garden Gothenburg Sweden
                [539 ]Gothenburg Global Biodiversity Centre Gothenburg Sweden
                [540 ]Texas Tech University Lubbock TX USA
                [541 ]Forest Sciences Centre Faculty of Forestry and Conservation Science University of British Columbia Vancouver BC Canada
                [542 ]Florida Museum of Natural History University of Florida Gainesville FL USA
                [543 ]Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences KU Leuven Leuven Belgium
                [544 ]Archbold Biological Station Venus FL USA
                [545 ]Embrapa Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia Brasilia DF Brazil
                [546 ]Institute of Environmental Sciences Leiden University Leiden The Netherlands
                [547 ]Departamento de Ecologia Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte Natal RN Brazil
                [548 ]Department of Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal Biology University of California Riverside Riverside CA USA
                [549 ]Department of Geography, Planning and Recreation Northern Arizona University Flagstaff AZ USA
                [550 ]Department of Ecology Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Uppsala Sweden
                [551 ]Forest Ecology and Forest Management Group Wageningen University The Netherlands
                [552 ]Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment University of Novi Sad Novi Sad Serbia
                [553 ]Stockholm University Stockholm Sweden
                [554 ]Instituto de Investigaciones en Biodiversidad y Medioambiente‐CONICET Universidad Nacional del Comahue Bariloche Argentina
                [555 ]Institute of Botany, Plant Science and Biodiversity Center Slovak Academy of Sciences Bratislava Slovakia
                [556 ]Department of Ecology and General Biology Faculty of Ecology and Environmental Sciences Technical University in Zvolen Zvolen Slovakia
                [557 ]Department of Ecosystem Biology Faculty of Science University of South Bohemia Ceske Budejovice Czech Republic
                [558 ]Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences Czech University of Life Sciences Prague Czech Republic
                [559 ]Department of Biology University of Maryland College Park MD USA
                [560 ]Departamento de Botânica Universidade Federal de Pernambuco Recife PE Brazil
                [561 ]Teshio Experimental Forest Hokkaido University Horonobe Japan
                [562 ]Departamento de Ecología Funcional y Evolutiva Estación Experimental de Zonas Áridas (CSIC) La Cañada de San Urbano Spain
                [563 ]CIRAD‐UMR SELMET‐PZZS Dakar Senegal
                [564 ]Department of Biology Hacettepe University Ankara Turkey
                [565 ]Environmental Sciences Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development Utrecht University Utrecht The Netherlands
                [566 ]Centre for African Conservation Ecology Nelson Mandela University Port Elizabeth South Africa
                [567 ]Natural Resources Canada Canadian Wood Fibre Centre Quebec QC Canada
                [568 ]Rubenstein School of Environment and Natural Resources University of Vermont Burlington VT USA
                [569 ]Bioversity International Lima Peru
                [570 ]Department of Animal and Plant Sciences University of Sheffield Sheffield UK
                [571 ]Centre for Rainforest Studies The School for Field Studies Yungaburra Qld Australia
                [572 ]Department of Life Sciences Imperial College London Silwood Park Ascot UK
                [573 ]MTA‐DE Lendület Functional and Restoration Ecology Research Group Debrecen Hungary
                [574 ]Department of Ecology University of Debrecen Debrecen Hungary
                [575 ]Department of Soil and Plant Sciences University of Delaware Newark DE USA
                [576 ]INRA – Université Clermont‐Auvergne UMR PIAF Clermont‐Ferrand France
                [577 ]MTA‐TKI Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services Research Group Debrecen Hungary
                [578 ]Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology Stellenbosch University Matieland South Africa
                [579 ]Illinois Natural History Survey Prairie Research Institute University of Illinois Champaign IL USA
                [580 ]Unit for Modelling of Climate and Biogeochemical Cycles UR‐SPHERES University of Liège Liège Belgique
                [581 ]Institute of Agricultural Sciences Department of Environmental Systems Science ETH Zurich Zurich Switzerland
                [582 ]School of Biological Sciences The University of Western Australia Crawley WA Australia
                [583 ]School of Biology Department of Botany Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Greece
                [584 ]CIRAD UMR EcoFoG (Agroparistech, CNRS, INRA, Université des Antilles, Université de la Guyane) Kourou France
                [585 ]Osaka Natural History Center Osaka Japan
                [586 ]Ural State Forest Engineering University Ekaterinburg Russia
                [587 ]Botanical Garden of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences Ekaterinburg Russia
                [588 ]University of New Hampshire Durham NH USA
                [589 ]Department of Biology Faculty of Science Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Mashhad Iran
                [590 ]Department of Biological Sciences University of Calgary Calgary AB Canada
                [591 ]College Environmental Studies Yale University New Haven CT USA
                [592 ]Department of Biological Sciences National University of Singapore Singapore Singapore
                [593 ]Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute Panama City Panama
                [594 ]School of Geosciences Edinburgh University Edinburgh UK
                [595 ]Systematic Botany and Functional Biodiversity Institute of Biology Leipzig University Leipzig Germany
                [596 ]Institute for Global Ecology Florida Institute of Technology Melbourne FL USA
                [597 ]Department of Biology University of Konstanz Konstanz Germany
                [598 ]Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation Taizhou University Taizhou China
                [599 ]Institute of Geography University of Erlangen‐Nuremberg Erlangen Germany
                [600 ]Department of Environmental Biology Sapienza University of Rome Rome Italy
                [601 ]Laboratorio de invasiones Biológicas Universidad de Concepcion Concepcion Chile
                [602 ]Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research Bulgarian Academy of Sciences Sofia Bulgaria
                [603 ]School of Biological Sciences and School of Agriculture and Environment The University of Western Australia Crawley WA Australia
                [604 ]Department of Environment Forest & Nature Lab Ghent University Gontrode‐Melle Belgium
                [605 ]Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi Belém PA Brazil
                [606 ]Departamento de Ciencias de la Vida Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas (ESPE) Sangolquí Ecuador
                [607 ]Department of Botany Goa University Goa India
                [608 ]Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences Pondicherry University Puducherry India
                [609 ]Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg Oldenburg Germany
                [610 ]Zoology Department Edward Grey InstituteOxford University Oxford UK
                [611 ]Department of Zoology Cambridge University Cambridge Conservation Initiative Cambridge UK
                [612 ]Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling Department of Earth System Science Tsinghua University Beijing China
                [613 ]Institute of Desertification Studies Chinese Academy of Forestry Beijing China
                [614 ]Institute of Geography Fujian Normal University Fuzhou China
                [615 ]Department of Landscape Architecture University of Sheffield Sheffield UK
                [616 ]Department of Biology Colgate University Hamilton NY USA
                [617 ]Ecological Sciences Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam Amsterdam The Netherlands
                [618 ]Maritime and Science Technology Academy Miami FL USA
                [619 ]Free University of Bozen‐Bolzano Bolzano Italy
                [620 ]University of Winnipeg Winnipeg Manitoba Canada
                [621 ]The James Hutton Institute Dundee UK
                [622 ]King Saud University Riyadh Saudi Arabia
                [623 ]University of California – Irvine Irvine CA USA
                [624 ]Southwest Biological Science Center U. S. Geological Survey Moab UT USA
                [625 ]Department of Biology Duke University Durham NC USA
                [626 ]NSW Department of Primary Industries Parramatta NSW Australia
                [627 ]Hiroshima University Higashi‐Hiroshima Japan
                [628 ]Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences University of Tsukuba Tsukuba Japan
                [629 ]SUNY‐College of Environmental Science and Forestry Syracuse NY USA
                [630 ]Centre d'Ecologie et des Sciences de la Conservation (CESCO) Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle Centre National de la Recherche ScientifiqueSorbonne‐Université Paris France
                [631 ]Laboratório de Ecologia Vegetal (LEVEG) Porto Alegre RS Brazil
                [632 ]Biological Sciences George Washington University Washington DC USA
                [633 ]National Taiwan University Taipei Taiwan
                [634 ]College of Life Sciences Zhejiang University Hangzhou China
                [635 ]Forestry College Beijing Forestry University Beijing China
                [636 ]Institut National Polytechnique Félix Houphouët‐Boigny (INP‐HB) Yamoussoukro Côte d'Ivoire
                [637 ]Institute for Biology and Environmental Sciences University Oldenburg Oldenburg Germany
                Article
                10.1111/gcb.14904
                31891233
                a9049e0d-cd7f-4229-906c-be9600775720
                © 2020

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1


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