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      Efficient and Sensitive Electrically Small Rectenna for Ultra-Low Power RF Energy Harvesting

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          Abstract

          A new electrically small antenna with size ka = 0.415 is presented, fabricated and measured in this work. This is intrinsically matched to 50 Ω, has omni-directional and linear-polarized radiation pattern in the horizontal plane with maximum directivity of 1.75 dBi and simulated radiation efficiency of 93%. The antenna in combination with a low-complex and co-planar rectifier with one single diode forms a high efficient and sensitive electrically small rectenna with ka = 0.53 at 868 MHz (UHF RFID-band in Europe). The latter has measured efficiency 22.5% for −19 dBm power input and sensitivity of −44 dBm (or equivalently 0.00028  μW/cm 2 power density), while at 2.25  μW/cm 2 is able to supply continuously, i.e., without a boost converter or use of any energy tank, a small electrical device with 118  μW. In order to increase the dc output voltage and the delivered dc power to the load for lower power density levels, rectenna-array configuration is exploited. Application to batteryless, backscatter wireless sensor node powering is discussed. Specifically, for a power density of 0.1237  μW/cm 2 the RF energy harvesting system delivers 172  μW at 2.85 V every 22.5 s.

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          Most cited references 26

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          The History of Power Transmission by Radio Waves

           W.C. Brown (1984)
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            Equivalent-circuit models for split-ring resonators and complementary split-ring resonators coupled to planar transmission lines

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              Ambient RF Energy Harvesting in Urban and Semi-Urban Environments

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                s.assimonis@qub.ac.uk
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                9 October 2018
                9 October 2018
                2018
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0374 7521, GRID grid.4777.3, School of Electronics, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, , Queen’s University Belfast, ; Belfast, BT3 9DT United Kingdom
                [2 ]ISNI 0000000106567444, GRID grid.9531.e, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, , Heriot-Watt University, ; Edinburgh, EH14 4AS United Kingdom
                [3 ]ISNI 0000000109457005, GRID grid.4793.9, School of Physics, , Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, ; Thessaloniki, 54124 Greece
                Article
                33388
                10.1038/s41598-018-33388-w
                6177435
                30301980
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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