ABSTRACT A taxonomic synopsis of Cypella (Iridaceae) in Brazil is presented with recognition of 16 species, two of them represented by two subspecies. An identification key to the taxa is provided and species are described and illustrated. New synonyms are indicated, and eight lectotypes, two epitypes and one neotype are designated. Results include distribution, habitat, phenology, conservation status, notes and examined specimens of all taxa, as well as comments on dubious and misused names. The resulting framework revealed that most of the Brazilian species of Cypella occur in the state of Rio Grande do Sul and in the Pampa Biome, although Río de la Plata grasslands (RPG) is the most species-rich biogeographic unit of the genus.