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      A taxonomic synopsis of Cypella (Iridaceae) in Brazil

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          ABSTRACT A taxonomic synopsis of Cypella (Iridaceae) in Brazil is presented with recognition of 16 species, two of them represented by two subspecies. An identification key to the taxa is provided and species are described and illustrated. New synonyms are indicated, and eight lectotypes, two epitypes and one neotype are designated. Results include distribution, habitat, phenology, conservation status, notes and examined specimens of all taxa, as well as comments on dubious and misused names. The resulting framework revealed that most of the Brazilian species of Cypella occur in the state of Rio Grande do Sul and in the Pampa Biome, although Río de la Plata grasslands (RPG) is the most species-rich biogeographic unit of the genus.

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          Darwinian shortfalls in biodiversity conservation.

          If we were to describe all the species on Earth and determine their distributions, we would solve the popularly termed 'Linnean' and 'Wallacean' shortfalls in biodiversity conservation. Even so, we would still be hindered by a 'Darwinian shortfall', that is, the lack of relevant phylogenetic information for most organisms. Overall, there are too few comprehensive phylogenies, large uncertainties in the estimation of divergence times, and, most critically, unknown evolutionary models linking phylogenies to relevant ecological traits and life history variation. Here, we discuss these issues and offer suggestions for further research to support evolutionary-based conservation planning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Campos de Cima da Serra: the Brazilian Subtropical Highland Grasslands show an unexpected level of plant endemism

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              Species discrimination in Sisyrinchium (Iridaceae): assessment of DNA barcodes in a taxonomically challenging genus.

              DNA barcoding aims to develop an efficient tool for species identification based on short and standardized DNA sequences. In this study, the DNA barcode paradigm was tested among the genera of the tribe Sisyrinchieae (Iridoideae). Sisyrinchium, with more than 77% of the species richness in the tribe, is a taxonomically complex genus. A total of 185 samples belonging to 98 species of Sisyrinchium, Olsynium, Orthrosanthus and Solenomelus were tested using matK, trnH-psbA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS). Candidate DNA barcodes were analysed either as single markers or in combination. Detection of a barcoding gap, similarity-based methods and tree-based analyses were used to assess the discrimination efficiency of DNA barcodes. The levels of species identification obtained from plastid barcodes were low and ranged from 17.35% to 20.41% for matK and 5.11% to 7.14% for trnH-psbA. The ITS provided better results with 30.61-38.78% of species identified. The analyses of the combined data sets did not result in a significant improvement in the discrimination rate. Among the tree-based methods, the best taxonomic resolution was obtained with Bayesian inference, particularly when the three data sets were combined. The study illustrates the difficulties for DNA barcoding to identify species in evolutionary complex lineages. Plastid markers are not recommended for barcoding Sisyrinchium due to the low discrimination power observed. ITS gave better results and may be used as a starting point for species identification.

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                Acta Botanica Brasilica
                Acta Bot. Bras.
                Sociedade Botânica do Brasil (Belo Horizonte, BA, Brazil )
                December 2019
                : 33
                : 4
                : 741-769
                Porto Alegre Rio Grande do Sul orgnameUniversidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul orgdiv1Programa de Pós-Graduação em Botânica Brazil
                Porto Alegre Rio Grande do Sul orgnameUniversidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul orgdiv1Departamento de Botânica Brazil
                Orsay Ile de France orgnameUniversité Paris sud - Paris XI orgdiv1Ecologie Systématique et Evolution, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS, AgroParisTech France

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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