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      Extracellular Matrix in Pancreatic Islets: Relevance to Scaffold Design and Transplantation

      , ,

      Cell Transplantation

      Cognizant, LLC

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          Most cited references 89

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          RGD and other recognition sequences for integrins.

           E Ruoslahti (1995)
          Proteins that contain the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) attachment site, together with the integrins that serve as receptors for them, constitute a major recognition system for cell adhesion. The RGD sequence is the cell attachment site of a large number of adhesive extracellular matrix, blood, and cell surface proteins, and nearly half of the over 20 known integrins recognize this sequence in their adhesion protein ligands. Some other integrins bind to related sequences in their ligands. The integrin-binding activity of adhesion proteins can be reproduced by short synthetic peptides containing the RGD sequence. Such peptides promote cell adhesion when insolubilized onto a surface, and inhibit it when presented to cells in solution. Reagents that bind selectively to only one or a few of the RGD-directed integrins can be designed by cyclizing peptides with selected sequences around the RGD and by synthesizing RGD mimics. As the integrin-mediated cell attachment influences and regulates cell migration, growth, differentiation, and apoptosis, the RGD peptides and mimics can be used to probe integrin functions in various biological systems. Drug design based on the RGD structure may provide new treatments for diseases such as thrombosis, osteoporosis, and cancer.
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            The unique cytoarchitecture of human pancreatic islets has implications for islet cell function.

            The cytoarchitecture of human islets has been examined, focusing on cellular associations that provide the anatomical framework for paracrine interactions. By using confocal microscopy and multiple immunofluorescence, we found that, contrary to descriptions of prototypical islets in textbooks and in the literature, human islets did not show anatomical subdivisions. Insulin-immunoreactive beta cells, glucagon-immunoreactive alpha cells, and somatostatin-containing delta cells were found scattered throughout the human islet. Human beta cells were not clustered, and most (71%) showed associations with other endocrine cells, suggesting unique paracrine interactions in human islets. Human islets contained proportionally fewer beta cells and more alpha cells than did mouse islets. In human islets, most beta, alpha, and delta cells were aligned along blood vessels with no particular order or arrangement, indicating that islet microcirculation likely does not determine the order of paracrine interactions. We further investigated whether the unique human islet cytoarchitecture had functional implications. Applying imaging of cytoplasmic free Ca2+ concentration, [Ca2+]i, we found that beta cell oscillatory activity was not coordinated throughout the human islet as it was in mouse islets. Furthermore, human islets responded with an increase in [Ca2+]i when lowering the glucose concentration to 1 mM, which can be attributed to the large contribution of alpha cells to the islet composition. We conclude that the unique cellular arrangement of human islets has functional implications for islet cell function.
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              Cell attachment activity of fibronectin can be duplicated by small synthetic fragments of the molecule

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cell Transplantation
                Cell Transplant
                Cognizant, LLC
                0963-6897
                1555-3892
                January 2009
                January 2009
                : 18
                : 1
                : 1-12
                10.3727/096368909788237195
                © 2009

                http://journals.sagepub.com/page/policies/text-and-data-mining-license

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