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      Enhanced Gene Transfer to Rabbit Jugular Veins by an Adenovirus Containing a Cyclic RGD Motif in the HI Loop of the Fiber Knob


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          Gene therapy using recombinant adenoviral vectors represents a promising therapeutic tool to prevent vein graft stenosis, the main complication of coronary artery bypass grafting. However, the low transduction efficiency of vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells (EC) is a potential limitation, presumably due to the low levels of functional adenovirus receptor (coxsackie:adenovirus receptor; CAR). Designing vectors specifically targeted to α<sub>v</sub> integrins is a strategy that might overcome the poor expression of CAR in vascular smooth muscle cells and EC. RGD, a receptor-binding motif that can interact with α<sub>v</sub> integrins, was inserted into the HI loop and at the C-terminus of the adenoviral fiber protein in two separate adenovirus vectors encoding a β-galactosidase reporter gene. Av1nBgCRGD (C-terminus) and Av1nBgHIRGD (HI loop) were evaluated in EC in culture and in jugular vein organ culture. Transduction of primary rat and rabbit EC with Av1nBgHIRGD was significantly more efficient when compared to Av1nBgCRGD or Av1nBg. Transduction of mouse, rat and rabbit jugular veins in organ culture using Av1nBg showed that adenovirus-mediated gene expression was greatest in rabbit jugular veins compared to rat and mouse veins. Av1nBgHIRGD augmented gene expression approximately four-fold in rabbit jugular veins when compared to Av1nBg. Histochemical analysis showed that numerous EC but few smooth muscle cells were transduced at all vector concentrations. A substantial number of adventitial fibroblasts were transduced only at the highest vector concentrations of Av1nBgHIRGD. These findings demonstrate that integrin-targeted vectors allow for enhanced gene delivery to veins and strengthen the viability of adenoviral-mediated gene transfer of therapeutic transgenes to human veins prior to vein grafting.

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          Isolation of a common receptor for Coxsackie B viruses and adenoviruses 2 and 5.

          A complementary DNA clone has been isolated that encodes a coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR). When transfected with CAR complementary DNA, nonpermissive hamster cells became susceptible to coxsackie B virus attachment and infection. Furthermore, consistent with previous studies demonstrating that adenovirus infection depends on attachment of a viral fiber to the target cell, CAR-transfected hamster cells bound adenovirus in a fiber-dependent fashion and showed a 100-fold increase in susceptibility to virus-mediated gene transfer. Identification of CAR as a receptor for these two unrelated and structurally distinct viral pathogens is important for understanding viral pathogenesis and has implications for therapeutic gene delivery with adenovirus vectors.
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            Coronary bypass surgery with internal-thoracic-artery grafts--effects on survival over a 15-year period.

            Aortocoronary bypass surgery has been performed most often with the patient's saphenous vein as the conduit. The internal-thoracic-artery graft, which has superior patency rates, has been shown to have clinical advantages, but it is not known how long these advantages persist. We identified all the patients in the registry of the Coronary Artery Surgery Study who had undergone first-time coronary-artery bypass grafting. Those with internal-thoracic-artery bypass grafts (749 patients) were compared with those with saphenous-vein bypass grafts only (4888 patients) with respect to survival over a 15-year follow-up period. In a multivariate analysis to account for differences between the two groups, the presence of an internal-thoracic-artery graft was an independent predictor of improved survival and was associated with a relative risk of dying of 0.73 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.64 to 0.83). This improved survival was also observed in subgroups including patients 65 years of age or older, both men and women, and patients with impaired ventricular function. The survival curves of the two groups showed further separation over the years of follow-up, with a more marked downsloping after eight years in the curve for the group with saphenous-vein grafts only than in that for the group with internal-thoracic-artery grafts. As compared with saphenous-vein coronary bypass grafts, internal-thoracic-artery grafts conferred a survival advantage throughout a 15-year follow-up period. The survival advantage increased with time, suggesting that the initial selection of the conduit was a more important factor in survival than problems appearing long after surgery, such as the progression of coronary disease.
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              Ex-vivo gene therapy of human vascular bypass grafts with E2F decoy: the PREVENT single-centre, randomised, controlled trial.

              Cell-cycle blockade by ex-vivo gene therapy of experimental vein grafts inhibits the neointimal hyperplasia and subsequent accelerated atherosclerosis that lead to human bypass-graft failure. In a prospective, randomised, controlled trial, we investigated the safety and biological efficacy of intraoperative gene therapy in patients receiving bypass vein grafts. We studied gene therapy that uses decoy oligodeoxynucleotide, which binds and inactivates the pivotal cell-cycle transcription factor E2F. 41 patients were randomly assigned untreated (16), E2F-decoy-treated (17), or scrambled-oligodeoxynucleotide-treated (eight) human infrainguinal vein grafts. Oligonucleotide was delivered to grafts intraoperatively by ex-vivo pressure-mediated transfection. The primary endpoints were safety and inhibition of target cell-cycle regulatory genes and of DNA synthesis in the grafts. Analysis was by intention to treat. Mean transfection efficiency was 89.0% (SD 1.9). Proliferating-cell nuclear antigen and c-myc mRNA concentrations and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation were decreased in the EF2-decoy group by medians of 73% [IQR 53-84], 70% [50-79], and 74% [56-83], respectively) but not in the scrambled-oligodeoxynucleotide group (p<0.0001). Groups did not differ for postoperative complication rates. At 12 months, fewer graft occlusions, revisions, or critical stenoses were seen in the E2F-decoy group than in the untreated group (hazard ratio 0.34 [95% CI 0.12-0.99]). Intraoperative transfection of human bypass vein grafts with E2F-decoy oligodeoxynucleotide is safe, feasible, and can achieve sequence-specific inhibition of cell-cycle gene expression and DNA replication. Application of this genetic-engineering strategy may lower failure rates of human primary bypass vein grafting.

                Author and article information

                J Vasc Res
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                August 2001
                11 July 2001
                : 38
                : 4
                : 315-323
                Genetic Therapy Inc./A Novartis Company, Gaithersburg, Md., USA
                51062 J Vasc Res 2001;38:315–323
                © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 4, References: 41, Pages: 9
                Research Paper


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