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      Past and present: conditions of life during childhood and mortality of older adults

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          ABSTRACT

          OBJECTIVE

          To analyze whether socioeconomic and health conditions during childhood are associated with mortality during old age.

          METHODS

          Data were extracted from the SABE Study ( Saúde, Bem-estar e Envelhecimento – Health, Welfare and Aging), which were performed in 2000 and 2006. The sample consisted of 2004 (1,355 living and 649 dead) older adults. The statistical analysis was performed based on Poisson regression models, taking into account the time variation of risk observed. Older adults’ demographic characteristics and life conditions were evaluated, as were the socioeconomic and lifestyle conditions they acquired during their adult life.

          RESULTS

          Only the area of residence during childhood (rural or urban) remained as a factor associated with mortality at advanced ages. However, this association lost significance when the variables acquired during adulthood were added to the model.

          CONCLUSIONS

          Despite the information regarding the conditions during childhood being limited and perhaps not accurately measure the socioeconomic status and health in the first years of life, the findings of this study suggest that improving the environmental conditions of children and creating opportunities during early adulthood may contribute to greater survival rates for those of more advanced years.

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          Most cited references 70

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          Weight in infancy and death from ischaemic heart disease.

          Environmental influences that impair growth and development in early life may be risk factors for ischaemic heart disease. To test this hypothesis, 5654 men born during 1911-30 were traced. They were born in six districts of Hertfordshire, England, and their weights in infancy were recorded. 92.4% were breast fed. Men with the lowest weights at birth and at one year had the highest death rates from ischaemic heart disease. The standardised mortality ratios fell from 111 in men who weighed 18 pounds (8.2 kg) or less at one year to 42 in those who weighed 27 pounds (12.3 kg) or more. Measures that promote prenatal and postnatal growth may reduce deaths from ischaemic heart disease. Promotion of postnatal growth may be especially important in boys who weigh below 7.5 pounds (3.4 kg) at birth.
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            Inflammatory exposure and historical changes in human life-spans.

             C. E. Finch (2004)
            Most explanations of the increase in life expectancy at older ages over history emphasize the importance of medical and public health factors of a particular historical period. We propose that the reduction in lifetime exposure to infectious diseases and other sources of inflammation--a cohort mechanism--has also made an important contribution to the historical decline in old-age mortality. Analysis of birth cohorts across the life-span since 1751 in Sweden reveals strong associations between early-age mortality and subsequent mortality in the same cohorts. We propose that a "cohort morbidity phenotype" represents inflammatory processes that persist from early age into adult life.
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              Saúde, bem-estar e envelhecimento: o estudo SABE no Município de São Paulo

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Rev Saude Publica
                Rev Saude Publica
                rsp
                Revista de Saúde Pública
                Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
                0034-8910
                1518-8787
                12 January 2016
                2015
                : 49
                Affiliations
                [I ]Faculdade do Gama. Universidade de Brasília. Brasília, DF, Brasil
                [II ]Centro de Desenvolvimento e Planejamento Regional. Faculdade de Ciências Econômicas. Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil
                [III ]Departamento de Enfermagem Médico-Cirúrgica. Escola de Enfermagem. Universidade de São Paulo. São Paulo, SP, Brasil
                [IV ]Departamento de Epidemiologia. Faculdade de Saúde Pública. Universidade de São Paulo. São Paulo, SP, Brasil
                [I ] Faculdade do Gama. Universidade de Brasília. Brasília, DF, Brasil
                [II ] Centro de Desenvolvimento e Planejamento Regional. Faculdade de Ciências Econômicas. Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil
                [III ] Departamento de Enfermagem Médico-Cirúrgica. Escola de Enfermagem. Universidade de São Paulo. São Paulo, SP, Brasil
                [IV ] Departamento de Epidemiologia. Faculdade de Saúde Pública. Universidade de São Paulo. São Paulo, SP, Brasil
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Marília Miranda Forte Gomes . Faculdade Gama – UnB. Área Especial de Indústria Projeção A. Prédio UED, sala 29 Gama – Setor Leste. 72444-240 Brasília, DF, Brasil. E-mail: mariliamfg@ 123456gmail.com

                AUTHORS’ CONTRIBUTION

                MMFG was involved in the project’s design, analysis and interpretation of the data and writing of the article. CMT and MGBF provided guidance for the study, took part in the project’s design and the writing of the article. YAOD and MLL participated in the writing of the article. All the authors have critically reviewed the intellectual content of the article and approved the final version to be published.

                Based on a doctoral thesis by Marília Miranda Forte Gomes, titled: “Passado e presente: uma análise dos determinantes da mortalidade entre idosos com base nos dados da SABE 2000-2006”, presented at the Centro de Desenvolvimento e Planejamento Regional (Cedeplar/FAC) in 2011.

                The authors declare no conflict of interest.

                [Correspondência ]: Marília Miranda Forte Gomes. Faculdade Gama – UnB. Área Especial de Indústria Projeção A. Prédio UED, sala 29 Gama – Setor Leste. 72444-240 Brasília, DF, Brasil. E-mail: mariliamfg@gmail.com

                CONTRIBUIÇÃO DOS AUTORES

                MMFG participou da concepção do projeto, análise e interpretação dos dados e redação do artigo. CMT e MGBF orientaram o trabalho, participaram da concepção do projeto e da redação do artigo. YAOD e MLL participaram da redação do artigo. Todos os autores revisaram criticamente o conteúdo intelectual do artigo e aprovaram a versão final a ser publicada.

                Baseado na tese de doutorado de Marília Miranda Forte Gomes, intitulada: “Passado e presente: uma análise dos determinantes da mortalidade entre idosos com base nos dados da SABE 2000-2006”, apresentada ao Centro de Desenvolvimento e Planejamento Regional (Cedeplar/FAC) em 2011.

                Os autores declaram não haver conflito de interesses.

                Article
                S0034-8910.2015049005555
                10.1590/S0034-8910.2015049005555
                4716652
                26786474

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 6, Equations: 0, References: 27, Pages: 1
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