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Maternal Complications and Women's Behavior in Seeking Care from Skilled Providers in North Gondar, Ethiopia

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      Abstract

      BackgroundMaternal complications are morbidities suffered during pregnancy through the postpartum period of 42 days. In Ethiopia, little is known about women's experience of complications and their care-seeking behavior. This study attempted to assess experiences related to obstetric complication and seeking assistance from a skilled provider among women who gave birth in the last 12 months preceding the study.MethodsThis study was a cross-sectional survey of women who gave birth within one year preceding the study regardless of their delivery place. The study was carried out in six selected districts in North Gondar Zone, Amhara Region. Data was collected house-to-house in 12 selected clusters (kebeles) using a pretested Amharic questionnaire. During the survey, 1,668 women were interviewed. Data entry was done using Epi Info version 3.5.3 and was exported to SPSS for analysis. Logistic regression was applied to control confounders.ResultsOut of the total sample, 476 women (28.5%, 95% CI: 26.4%, 30.7%) reported some kind of complication. The most common complications reported were; excessive bleeding and prolonged labor that occurred mostly at the time of delivery and postpartum period. Out of the total women who faced complications, 248 (52.1%, 95% CI: 47.6%, 56.6%) sought assistance from a skilled provider. Inability to judge the severity of morbidities, distance/transport problems, lack of money/cost considerations and use of traditional options at home were the major reasons for not seeking care from skilled providers. Belonging to a wealthier quintile, getting antenatal care from a skilled provider and agreement of a woman in planning for possible complications were significantly associated with seeking assistance from a skilled provider.ConclusionNearly half of the women who faced complications did not use skilled providers at the time of obstetric complications. Cognitive, geographic, economic and cultural barriers were involved in not using skilled maternal care.

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      WHO analysis of causes of maternal death: a systematic review.

      The reduction of maternal deaths is a key international development goal. Evidence-based health policies and programmes aiming to reduce maternal deaths need reliable and valid information. We undertook a systematic review to determine the distribution of causes of maternal deaths. We selected datasets using prespecified criteria, and recorded dataset characteristics, methodological features, and causes of maternal deaths. All analyses were restricted to datasets representative of populations. We analysed joint causes of maternal deaths from datasets reporting at least four major causes (haemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, sepsis, abortion, obstructed labour, ectopic pregnancy, embolism). We examined datasets reporting individual causes of death to investigate the heterogeneity due to methodological features and geographical region and the contribution of haemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, abortion, and sepsis as causes of maternal death at the country level. 34 datasets (35,197 maternal deaths) were included in the primary analysis. We recorded wide regional variation in the causes of maternal deaths. Haemorrhage was the leading cause of death in Africa (point estimate 33.9%, range 13.3-43.6; eight datasets, 4508 deaths) and in Asia (30.8%, 5.9-48.5; 11,16 089). In Latin America and the Caribbean, hypertensive disorders were responsible for the most deaths (25.7%, 7.9-52.4; ten, 11,777). Abortion deaths were the highest in Latin America and the Caribbean (12%), which can be as high as 30% of all deaths in some countries in this region. Deaths due to sepsis were higher in Africa (odds ratio 2.71), Asia (1.91), and Latin America and the Caribbean (2.06) than in developed countries. Haemorrhage and hypertensive disorders are major contributors to maternal deaths in developing countries. These data should inform evidence-based reproductive health-care policies and programmes at regional and national levels. Capacity-strengthening efforts to improve the quality of burden-of-disease studies will further validate future estimates.
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        Maternal mortality: who, when, where, and why.

        The risk of a woman dying as a result of pregnancy or childbirth during her lifetime is about one in six in the poorest parts of the world compared with about one in 30 000 in Northern Europe. Such a discrepancy poses a huge challenge to meeting the fifth Millennium Development Goal to reduce maternal mortality by 75% between 1990 and 2015. Some developed and transitional countries have managed to reduce their maternal mortality during the past 25 years. Few of these, however, began with the very high rates that are now estimated for the poorest countries-in which further progress is jeopardised by weak health systems, continuing high fertility, and poor availability of data. Maternal deaths are clustered around labour, delivery, and the immediate postpartum period, with obstetric haemorrhage being the main medical cause of death. Local variation can be important, with unsafe abortion carrying huge risk in some populations, and HIV/AIDS becoming a leading cause of death where HIV-related mortaliy rates are high. Inequalities in the risk of maternal death exist everywhere. Targeting of interventions to the most vulnerable--rural populations and poor people--is essential if substantial progress is to be achieved by 2015.
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          Maternal health in poor countries: the broader context and a call for action.

          In this paper, we take a broad perspective on maternal health and place it in its wider context. We draw attention to the economic and social vulnerability of pregnant women, and stress the importance of concomitant broader strategies, including poverty reduction and women's empowerment. We also consider outcomes beyond mortality, in particular, near-misses and long-term sequelae, and the implications of the close association between the mother, the fetus, and the child. We make links to a range of global survival initiatives, particularly neonatal health, HIV, and malaria, and to reproductive health. Finally, after examining the political and financial context, we call for action. The need for strategic vision, financial resources, human resources, and information are discussed.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Department of Reproductive Health, Institute of Public Health, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia
            [2 ]Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
            [3 ]Department of Reproductive Health and Health Service Management, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
            Boston Children's Hospital, United States of America
            Author notes

            Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

            Equally involved in the development of the proposal: AGW AWY MFA. Participated in data collection: AGW AWY. Participated in analysis: AGW AWY. Prepared the draft: AGW. Revised drafts of the paper: AWY MFA. Read and approved the final manuscript: AGW AWY MFA.

            Contributors
            Role: Editor
            Journal
            PLoS One
            PLoS ONE
            plos
            plosone
            PLoS ONE
            Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
            1932-6203
            2013
            28 March 2013
            : 8
            : 3
            23555915
            3610646
            PONE-D-12-28632
            10.1371/journal.pone.0060171
            (Editor)

            This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

            Counts
            Pages: 8
            Funding
            This is one part of a PhD study project funded by Addis Ababa University. The university is following whether findings are presented and published. The preliminary findings of this study were presented at school of public health (AAU University). After incorporating important comments, the authors have prepared this part for publication at PLOS ONE. Therefore all the presentation and publication process is the responsibility of the investigators. The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
            Categories
            Research Article
            Biology
            Population Biology
            Epidemiology
            Medicine
            Clinical Research Design
            Epidemiology
            Epidemiology
            Non-Clinical Medicine
            Health Care Policy
            Health Statistics
            Health Systems Strengthening
            Health Care Providers
            Health Care Quality
            Obstetrics and Gynecology
            Pregnancy
            Pregnancy Complications
            Management of High-Risk Pregnancies
            Public Health
            Women's Health

            Uncategorized

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