We investigate the properties of strongly interacting bosons in two dimensions at zero temperature using mean-field theory, a variational Ansatz for the ground state wave function, and Monte Carlo methods. With on-site and short-range interactions a rich phase diagram is obtained. Apart from the homogeneous superfluid and Mott-insulating phases, inhomogeneous charge-density wave phases appear, that are stabilized by the finite-range interaction. Furthermore, our analysis demonstrates the existence of a supersolid phase, in which both long-range order (related to the charge-density wave) and off-diagonal long-range order coexist. We also obtain the critical exponents for the various phase transitions.