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      Multiparametric plasma EV profiling facilitates diagnosis of pancreatic malignancy

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          Abstract

          Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is usually detected late in the disease process. Clinical workup through imaging and tissue biopsies is often complex and expensive due to a paucity of reliable biomarkers. We used an advanced multiplexed plasmonic assay to analyze circulating tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (tEVs) in more than 100 clinical populations. Using EV-based protein marker profiling, we identified a signature of five markers (PDACEV signature) for PDAC detection. In our prospective cohort, the accuracy for the PDACEV signature was 84% [95% confidence interval (CI), 69 to 93%] but only 63 to 72% for single-marker screening. One of the best markers, GPC1 alone, had a sensitivity of 82% (CI, 60 to 95%) and a specificity of 52% (CI, 30 to 74%), whereas the PDACEV signature showed a sensitivity of 86% (CI, 65 to 97%) and a specificity of 81% (CI, 58 to 95%). The PDACEV signature of tEVs offered higher sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy than the existing serum marker (CA 19-9) or single–tEV marker analyses. This approach should improve the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Protein typing of circulating microvesicles allows real-time monitoring of glioblastoma therapy.

          Glioblastomas shed large quantities of small, membrane-bound microvesicles into the circulation. Although these hold promise as potential biomarkers of therapeutic response, their identification and quantification remain challenging. Here, we describe a highly sensitive and rapid analytical technique for profiling circulating microvesicles directly from blood samples of patients with glioblastoma. Microvesicles, introduced onto a dedicated microfluidic chip, are labeled with target-specific magnetic nanoparticles and detected by a miniaturized nuclear magnetic resonance system. Compared with current methods, this integrated system has a much higher detection sensitivity and can differentiate glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) microvesicles from nontumor host cell-derived microvesicles. We also show that circulating GBM microvesicles can be used to analyze primary tumor mutations and as a predictive metric of treatment-induced changes. This platform could provide both an early indicator of drug efficacy and a potential molecular stratifier for human clinical trials.
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            Tumor markers in pancreatic cancer: a European Group on Tumor Markers (EGTM) status report.

            Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is one of the most difficult malignancies to diagnose and treat. The aim of this article is to review how tumor markers can aid the diagnosis and management of patients with this malignancy. The most widely used and best validated marker for pancreatic cancer is CA 19-9. Inadequate sensitivity and specificity limit the use of CA 19-9 in the early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. In non-jaundiced patients, however, CA 19-9 may complement other diagnostic procedures. In patients with resectable pancreatic cancer, presurgical and postresection CA 19-9 levels correlate with overall survival. In advanced disease, elevated pretreatment levels of CA 19-9 are associated with adverse patient outcome and thus may be combined with other factors for risk stratification. Most, but not all, reports indicate that serial levels of CA 19-9 correlate with response to systemic therapy. Use of CA 19-9 kinetics in conjunction with imaging is therefore recommended in monitoring therapy. Although several potential serum and tissue markers for pancreatic cancer are currently undergoing evaluation, none are sufficiently validated for routine clinical use. CA 19-9 thus remains the serum pancreatic cancer marker against which new markers for this malignancy should be judged.
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              New biomarkers and targets in pancreatic cancer and their application to treatment.

              Late diagnosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (pancreatic cancer) and the limited response to current treatments results in an exceptionally poor prognosis. Advances in our understanding of the molecular events underpinning pancreatic cancer development and metastasis offer the hope of tangible benefits for patients. In-depth mutational analyses have shed light on the genetic abnormalities in pancreatic cancer, providing potential treatment targets. New biological studies in patients and in mouse models have advanced our knowledge of the timing of metastasis of pancreatic cancer, highlighting new directions for the way in which patients are treated. Furthermore, our increasing understanding of the molecular events in tumorigenesis is leading to the identification of biomarkers that enable us to predict response to treatment. A major drawback, however, is the general lack of an adequate systematic approach to advancing the use of biomarkers in cancer drug development, highlighted in a Cancer Biomarkers Collaborative consensus report. In this Review, we summarize the latest insights into the biology of pancreatic cancer, and their repercussions for treatment. We provide an overview of current treatments and, finally, we discuss novel therapeutic approaches, including the role of biomarkers in therapy for pancreatic cancer.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Science Translational Medicine
                Sci. Transl. Med.
                American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
                1946-6234
                1946-6242
                May 24 2017
                May 24 2017
                : 9
                : 391
                : eaal3226
                Article
                10.1126/scitranslmed.aal3226
                28539469
                © 2017

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