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      Cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of the plancitoxin I from the venom of crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster planci) on A375.S2 cells.

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          Abstract

          This study reports on a cytotoxic toxin derived from the venom of the crown-of-thorns starfish Acanthaster planci (CAV). The protein toxin was isolated through both ion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography, and characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and mass spectrum analyzes. The CAV was identified as plancitoxin I protein. The mechanistic role of the CAV toxin was explored in human malignant melanoma A375.S2 cell death. The results indicated that after incubation with CAV toxin, cells significantly decreased in A375.S2 cell viability and increased in the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level in a dose-dependent manner. The assays indicated that CAV toxin promoted reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, induced nitric oxide (NO) formation, lost mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and induced inter-nucleosomal DNA fragmentation in A375.S2 cells. The molecular cytotoxicity of the CAV toxin was tested through evaluation of the apoptosis/necrosis ratio by double staining with annexin V-FITC and a propidium iodide (PI) assay. The results suggested that CAV toxin induced a cytotoxic effect in A375.S2 cells via the apoptotic procedure, and may be associated with the regulation of the p38 pathways.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          J Appl Toxicol
          Journal of applied toxicology : JAT
          Wiley
          1099-1263
          0260-437X
          Apr 2015
          : 35
          : 4
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Department of Food Science and Center of Excellence for Marine Bioenvironment and Biotechnology, National Taiwan Ocean University, 2 Pei-Ning Road, Keelung, 202, Taiwan, ROC.
          Article
          10.1002/jat.3034
          25047904

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