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      Delayed Allergic Cutaneous Hypersensitivity to Icodextrin

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      Canadian Journal of General Internal Medicine
      Dougmar Publishing Group, Inc.

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          Abstract

          Rashes pose a unique challenge to general internists. Here we present a case of a 51-year-old female with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on peritoneal dialysis who presented to a General Internal Medicine clinic with a vesiculobullous rash on palms and soles 6 months after using icodextrin dialysate, a widely used osmotic agent in peritoneal dialysis. The investigations were positive for an elevated eosinophil count, elevated IgE level and a skin biopsy consistent with an allergic reaction. Her symptoms and labs normalized after stopping icodextrin. There are some reports of allergic reactions to icodextrin which usually occur within a month of initiation of the agent and are self-limiting. Here we hope to report a case of a reaction that occurred 6 months after using icodextrin. Resume Les éruptions cutanées posent un défi particulier aux internistes généraux. Nous rapportons ici le cas d’une femme de 51 ans atteinte d’insuffisance rénale terminale (IRT), sous dialyse péritonéale, qui se présente à une clinique de médecine interne générale avec une éruption cutanée vésiculo-bulleuse sur les paumes et la plante des pieds. Depuis six mois, la patiente utilise un dialysat d’icodextrine, un agent osmotique largement utilisé en dialyse péritonéale. Les analyses ont révélé une numération élevée des éosinophiles, un taux élevé d’IgE et une biopsie cutanée a indiqué la présence d’une réaction allergique. Les symptômes et les résultats d’analyses se sont normalisés après l’arrêt de l’icodextrine. Des réactions d’allergie à l’icodextrine ont déjà été rapportées, mais celles-ci surgissent habituellement dans le mois suivant le début de l’usage de l’agent et se résorbent d’elles-mêmes. Nous désirons signaler un cas de réaction survenue six mois après le début de l’utilisation de l’icodextrine.    

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          Persistent pruritus after hydroxyethyl starch infusion therapy: a result of long-term storage in cutaneous nerves.

          A high incidence of severe pruritus has been observed after the administration of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) on account of plasma volume substitution and improvement of the microcirculation. The aim of this study was to elucidate the possible pathomechanisms of HES-induced itching. Skin biopsies were taken from 93 patients, half of them presenting with pruritus, who received HES of various preparations and cumulative dosages. The samples were subjected to immunoelectron microscopical investigation using an antibody highly specific for HES. After infusion therapy with HES, formation of intracytoplasmic storage vacuoles in the skin could be demonstrated in all patients. A dose-dependent uptake of HES was first detectable in macrophages and, thereafter, in endothelial and epithelial cells. Consecutive control biopsies taken from single patients revealed a subsequent reduction of the vacuoles, in size and number, within 3 years, thus indicating a regular cutaneous metabolism of HES. Patients suffering from pruritus consistently showed additional deposition of HES in small peripheral nerves. HES-reactive vacuoles could be demonstrated in the Schwann cells of unmyelinated, as well as small myelinated, nerve fibres, and in endoneural and perineural cells. Neural devacuolization paralleled the clinical improvement in the symptoms. In conclusion, HES deposits in cutaneous nerves, as a consequence of a higher cumulative dosage, may account for the itching seen after HES infusion.
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            Allergic reactions to the polymeric glucose-based peritoneal dialysis fluid icodextrin in patients with renal failure.

            A new glucoee polymer, icodextrin, related to maltose, is in increasing use as a peritoneal dialysis fluid. We report on adverse events seen in our unit during a 12-month period after the introduction of this reagent.
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              Practical Considerations When Prescribing Icodextrin: A Narrative Review

              Background: Icodextrin is a peritoneal dialysis solution that is commonly used to increase ultrafiltration during the long dwell. The other major clinical benefit of icodextrin is that it is glucose-sparing, which may help preserve peritoneal membrane function. Since it has a different chemical composition than dextrose, and with its increasing use, there are several clinical considerations healthcare providers must familiarize themselves with prior to prescribing icodextrin. Summary: Failure to recognize these special properties of icodextrin can lead to adverse events reaching patients. This narrative review explores the hemodynamic, metabolic, and idiopathic effects of icodextrin to facilitate the safe use of icodextrin in peritoneal dialysis. Key Messages: Hemodynamic effects include hypotension from enhanced ultrafiltration contributing to loss of residual kidney function. Metabolic effects include the chemical structure of icodextrin interfering with biochemical assays, resulting in misleading glucose readings on non-specific glucometers. Idiopathic adverse effects include a diffuse rash and sterile peritonitis. It is also important to remember that not all antibiotic combinations have undergone stability testing in icodextrin. This narrative review will help healthcare providers to confidently prescribe icodextrin to maximize its benefit in peritoneal dialysis patients.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Canadian Journal of General Internal Medicine
                Can Journ Gen Int Med
                Dougmar Publishing Group, Inc.
                2369-1778
                1911-1606
                January 02 2018
                January 02 2018
                : 12
                : 4
                Article
                10.22374/cjgim.v12i4.196
                a92937b7-9619-4c58-8014-7ae2721a6e79
                © 2018

                Copyright of articles published in all DPG titles is retained by the author. The author grants DPG the rights to publish the article and identify itself as the original publisher. The author grants DPG exclusive commercial rights to the article. The author grants any non-commercial third party the rights to use the article freely provided original author(s) and citation details are cited. To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/


                General medicine,Geriatric medicine,Neurology,Internal medicine
                General medicine, Geriatric medicine, Neurology, Internal medicine

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