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      Nanoarchitectonics of Nanoporous Carbon Materials in Supercapacitors Applications

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          Abstract

          High surface area and large pore volume carbon materials having hierarchical nanoporous structure are required in high performance supercapacitors. Such nanoporous carbon materials can be fabricated from organic precursors with high carbon content, such as synthetic biomass or agricultural wastes containing cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Using recently developed unique concept of materials nanoarchitectonics, high performance porous carbons with controllable surface area, pore size distribution, and hierarchy in nanoporous structure can be fabricated. In this review, we will overview the recent trends and advancements on the synthetic methods for the production of hierarchical porous carbons with one- to three-dimensional network structure with superior performance in supercapacitors applications. We highlight the promising scope of accessing nanoporous graphitic carbon materials from: (i) direct conversion of single crystalline self-assembled fullerene nanomaterials and metal organic frameworks, (ii) hard- and soft-templating routes, and (iii) the direct carbonization and/or activation of biomass or agricultural wastes as non-templating routes. We discuss the appealing points of the different synthetic carbon sources and natural precursor raw−materials derived nanoporous carbon materials in supercapacitors applications.

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          Most cited references 142

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          Metal-organic framework as a template for porous carbon synthesis.

          Porous carbon was synthesized by heating the precursor FA within the pores of MOF-5. The resultant carbon displayed a high specific surface area (BET, 2872 m2.g-1) and important hydrogen uptake (2.6 wt % at 760 Torr, -196 degrees C) as well as excellent electrochemical properties as an electrode material for electrochemical double-layered capacitor (EDLC).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nanomaterials (Basel)
                Nanomaterials (Basel)
                nanomaterials
                Nanomaterials
                MDPI
                2079-4991
                29 March 2020
                April 2020
                : 10
                : 4
                Affiliations
                [1 ]International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI−MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1−1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305−0044, Japan; MAJI.Subrata@ 123456nims.go.jp (S.M.); SHRESTHA.LokKumar@ 123456nims.go.jp (L.K.S.)
                [2 ]Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277−8561, Japan
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: GOSWAMI.Rekha@ 123456nims.go.jp (R.G.S.); ARIGA.Katsuhiko@ 123456nims.go.jp (K.A.); Tel.: +81-029-860-4597 (K.A.)
                Article
                nanomaterials-10-00639
                10.3390/nano10040639
                7221662
                32235393
                a9381bac-d87a-4c84-84ad-8f55c34c4226
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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