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      Preparation and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles containing Fe 3O 4-dextran-anti-β-human chorionic gonadotropin, a new generation choriocarcinoma-specific gene vector

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          To evaluate the feasibility of using magnetic iron oxide (Fe 3O 4)-dextran-anti-β-human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) nanoparticles as a gene vector for cellular transfections.

          Study design:

          Fe 3O 4-dextran-anti-β-HCG nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical coprecipitation. The configuration, diameter, and iron content of the nanoparticles were detected by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), light scatter, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. A3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo(-z-y1)-3,5-di-phenytetrazoliumromide assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of Fe 3O 4-dextran-anti-β-HCG nanoparticles. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence were used to evaluate immunoreactivity. The efficiency of absorbing DNA and resisting deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I) digestion when bound to Fe 3O 4-dextran-anti-β-HCG nanoparticles was examined by agarose gel electrophoresis. The ability of Fe 3O 4-dextran-anti-β-HCG nanoparticles to absorb heparanase antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (AS-ODN) nanoparticles in different cell lines was evaluated by flow cytometry. The tissue distribution of heparanase AS-ODN magnetic nanoparticles in choriocarcinoma tumors transplanted in nude mice was detected by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.


          TEM demonstrated that the shape of nanoparticles is irregular. Light scatter revealed nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 75.5 nm and an iron content of 37.5 μg/mL. No cytotoxicity was observed when the concentration of Fe 3O 4-dextran-anti-β-HCG nanoparticles was <37.5 μg/mL. Fe 3O 4-dextran nanoparticles have a satisfactory potential to combine with β-HCG antibody. Agarose gel electrophoresis analysis of binding experiments showed that after treatment with sodium periodate, Fe 3O 4-dextran-anti-β-HCG nanoparticles have a satisfactory potential to absorb DNA, and the protection experiment showed that nanoparticles can effectively protect DNA from DNase I digestion. Aldehyde Fe 3O 4-dextran-anti-β-HCG nanoparticles can transfect reporter genes, and the transfection efficiency of these nanoparticles is greater than that of liposomes ( P < 0.05). Fe 3O 4-dextran-anti-β-HCG nanoparticles can concentrate in choriocarcinoma cells and in transplanted choriocarcinoma tumors.


          The results confirm that Fe 3O 4-dextran-anti-β-HCG nanoparticles have potential as a secure, effective, and choriocarcinoma-specific targeting gene vector.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Silica nanoparticles modified with aminosilanes as carriers for plasmid DNA.

          We synthesised silica nanoparticles (SiNP) with covalently linked cationic surface modifications and demonstrated their ability to electrostatically bind, condense and protect plasmid DNA. These particles might be utilised as DNA carriers for gene delivery. All nanoparticles were sized between 10 and 100 nm and displayed surface charge potentials from +7 to +31 mV at pH 7.4. They were produced by modification of commercially available (IPAST) or in-house synthesised silica particles with either N-(2-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane or N-(6-aminohexyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane. All particles formed complexes with pCMVbeta plasmid DNA as evidenced by ratio dependent retardation of DNA in the agarose gel and co-sedimentation of soluble DNA with nanoparticles. High salt and alkaline pH did inhibit complex formation. Absorption onto the particles also decreased the hydrodynamic dimensions of plasmid DNA as shown by photon correlation spectroscopy. Complexes formed in water at a w/w ratio of Si26H:DNA (pCMVbeta) of 300 were smallest with a mean hydrodynamic diameter of 83 nm. For effective condensation a w/w ratio of Si26H:DNA of 30 was sufficient. Further, the absorbed DNA was protected from enzymatic degradation by DNase I.
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            Nanoparticles consisting of DNA, human serum albumin (HSA) and polyethylenimine (PEI) were formed and tested for transfection efficiency in vitro with the aim of generating a nonviral gene delivery vehicle. HSA-PEI-DNA nanoparticles containing the pGL3 vector coding for luciferase as reporter gene were formed by charge neutralization. The particles were characterized by gel retardation assay, dynamic light scattering (size) and electrophoretic mobility measurements (charge). Stability was determined by spectrophotometric analysis and transfection efficiency was evaluated in cell culture using human embryonic epithelial kidney 293 cells. HSA-PEI-DNA nanoparticles were prepared by co-encapsulation of PEI as a lysosomotropic agent at varying nitrogen to phosphate (N/P) ratios. An optimum transfection efficiency was achieved when the particles were prepared at N/P ratios between 4.8 and 8.4. Furthermore, they displayed a low cytotoxicity when tested in cell culture. Our results show that HSA-PEI-DNA nanoparticles are a versatile carrier for DNA that may be suitable for i.v. administration.
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              Targeting tumors with non-viral gene delivery systems.

              Targeting therapeutic genes to tumors is an attractive concept in curing malignant diseases. Systemic gene delivery systems are needed for therapeutic applications in which the target cells are not directly accessible, and which can only be reached via the systemic route. Recent developments in the field of non-viral gene delivery have shown that, based on (poly)cationic carrier molecules, DNA can be efficiently targeted to tumors via the bloodstream. Tailor-made synthetic vectors can be used to achieve predominant gene expression in tumor tissue. Therapeutic concepts based, for example, on suicide genes or cytokines, showed encouraging results in preclinical and also in first clinical evaluations.

                Author and article information

                Int J Nanomedicine
                International Journal of Nanomedicine
                Dove Medical Press
                2 February 2011
                : 6
                : 285-294
                [1 ]Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China;
                [2 ]Department of Gynecological Oncology, Hunan Tumor Hospital, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Zhang Yi, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 731 84327205, Fax +86 731 88876554, Email cjingting114@ 123456yahoo.com.cn
                © 2011 Jingting et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Original Research


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