Blog
About

23
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Landscape of Familial Isolated and Young-Onset Pituitary Adenomas: Prospective Diagnosis in AIP Mutation Carriers

      , , , , , , , , , , , ,

      (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) (Collab) (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD, PhD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD, PhD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab) , MD (Collab)

      The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

      Endocrine Society

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Context:

          Familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) due to aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein ( AIP) gene mutations is an autosomal dominant disease with incomplete penetrance. Clinical screening of apparently unaffected AIP mutation ( AIPmut) carriers could identify previously unrecognized disease.

          Objective:

          To determine the AIP mutational status of FIPA and young pituitary adenoma patients, analyzing their clinical characteristics, and to perform clinical screening of apparently unaffected AIPmut carrier family members.

          Design:

          This was an observational, longitudinal study conducted over 7 years.

          Setting:

          International collaborative study conducted at referral centers for pituitary diseases.

          Participants:

          FIPA families (n = 216) and sporadic young-onset (≤30 y) pituitary adenoma patients (n = 404) participated in the study.

          Interventions:

          We performed genetic screening of patients for AIPmuts, clinical assessment of their family members, and genetic screening for somatic GNAS1 mutations and the germline FGFR4 p.G388R variant.

          Main Outcome Measure(s):

          We assessed clinical disease in mutation carriers, comparison of characteristics of AIPmut positive and negative patients, results of GNAS1, and FGFR4 analysis.

          Results:

          Thirty-seven FIPA families and 34 sporadic patients had AIPmuts. Patients with truncating AIPmuts had a younger age at disease onset and diagnosis, compared with patients with nontruncating AIPmuts. Somatic GNAS1 mutations were absent in tumors from AIPmut-positive patients, and the studied FGFR4 variant did not modify the disease behavior or penetrance in AIPmut-positive individuals. A total of 164 AIPmut-positive unaffected family members were identified; pituitary disease was detected in 18 of those who underwent clinical screening.

          Conclusions:

          A quarter of the AIPmut carriers screened were diagnosed with pituitary disease, justifying this screening and suggesting a variable clinical course for AIPmut-positive pituitary adenomas.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 26

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Clinical practice guidelines for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1).

          The aim was to provide guidelines for evaluation, treatment, and genetic testing for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). The group, which comprised 10 experts, including physicians, surgeons, and geneticists from international centers, received no corporate funding or remuneration. Guidelines were developed by reviews of peer-reviewed publications; a draft was prepared, reviewed, and rigorously revised at several stages; and agreed-upon revisions were incorporated. MEN1 is an autosomal dominant disorder that is due to mutations in the tumor suppressor gene MEN1, which encodes a 610-amino acid protein, menin. Thus, the finding of MEN1 in a patient has important implications for family members because first-degree relatives have a 50% risk of developing the disease and can often be identified by MEN1 mutational analysis. MEN1 is characterized by the occurrence of parathyroid, pancreatic islet, and anterior pituitary tumors. Some patients may also develop carcinoid tumors, adrenocortical tumors, meningiomas, facial angiofibromas, collagenomas, and lipomas. Patients with MEN1 have a decreased life expectancy, and the outcomes of current treatments, which are generally similar to those for the respective tumors occurring in non-MEN1 patients, are not as successful because of multiple tumors, which may be larger, more aggressive, and resistant to treatment, and the concurrence of metastases. The prognosis for MEN1 patients might be improved by presymptomatic tumor detection and undertaking treatment specific for MEN1 tumors. Thus, it is recommended that MEN1 patients and their families should be cared for by multidisciplinary teams comprising relevant specialists with experience in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with endocrine tumors.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            GTPase inhibiting mutations activate the alpha chain of Gs and stimulate adenylyl cyclase in human pituitary tumours.

            A subset of growth hormone-secreting human pituitary tumours carries somatic mutations that inhibit GTPase activity of a G protein alpha chain, alpha(s). The resulting activation of adenylyl cyclase bypasses the cells' normal requirement for trophic hormone. Amino acids substituted in the putative gsp oncogene identify a domain of G protein alpha-chains required for intrinsic ability to hydrolyse GTP. This domain may serve as a built-in counter-part of the separate GTPase-activating proteins required for GTP hydrolysis by small GTP-binding proteins such as p21ras.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Clinical characteristics and therapeutic responses in patients with germ-line AIP mutations and pituitary adenomas: an international collaborative study.

              AIP mutations (AIPmut) give rise to a pituitary adenoma predisposition that occurs in familial isolated pituitary adenomas and less often in sporadic cases. The clinical and therapeutic features of AIPmut-associated pituitary adenomas have not been studied comprehensively. The objective of the study was to assess clinical/therapeutic characteristics of AIPmut pituitary adenomas. This study was an international, multicenter, retrospective case collection/database analysis. The study was conducted at 36 tertiary referral endocrine and clinical genetics departments. Patients included 96 patients with germline AIPmut and pituitary adenomas and 232 matched AIPmut-negative acromegaly controls. The AIPmut population was predominantly young and male (63.5%); first symptoms occurred as children/adolescents in 50%. At diagnosis, most tumors were macroadenomas (93.3%); extension and invasion was common. Somatotropinomas comprised 78.1% of the cohort; there were also prolactinomas (n = 13), nonsecreting adenomas (n = 7), and a TSH-secreting adenoma. AIPmut somatotropinomas were larger (P = 0.00026), with higher GH levels (P = 0.00068), more frequent extension (P = 0.018) and prolactin cosecretion (P = 0.00023), and occurred 2 decades before controls (P < 0.000001). Gigantism was more common in the AIPmut group (P < 0.000001). AIPmut somatotropinoma patients underwent more surgical interventions (P = 0.00069) and had lower decreases in GH (P = 0.00037) and IGF-I (P = 0.028) and less tumor shrinkage with somatostatin analogs (P < 0.00001) vs. controls. AIPmut prolactinomas occurred generally in young males and frequently required surgery or radiotherapy. AIPmut pituitary adenomas have clinical features that may negatively impact treatment efficacy. Predisposition for aggressive disease in young patients, often in a familial setting, suggests that earlier diagnosis of AIPmut pituitary adenomas may have clinical utility.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Clin Endocrinol Metab
                J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab
                jcem
                jceme
                jcem
                The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
                Endocrine Society (Chevy Chase, MD )
                0021-972X
                1945-7197
                September 2015
                17 July 2015
                17 July 2015
                : 100
                : 9
                : E1242-E1254
                Affiliations
                Centre for Endocrinology (L.C.H.-R., P.G., J.D., G.T., D.T., F.F., J.E., M.K.), William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, London EC1M 6BQ, United Kingdom; Department of Molecular Genetics (K.S., S.E.), Royal Devon and Exeter National Health Service Foundation Trust, Exeter EX2 5DW, United Kingdom; Program on Developmental Endocrinology and Genetics (G.T.), Section on Endocrinology and Genetics, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892; Department of Endocrinology (A.B.G.), Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolism, Churchill Hospital. Headington, Oxford OX3 7LE, United Kingdom; Division of Brain Sciences (F.R.), Faculty of Medicine, Charing Cross Hospital, Imperial College, London W6 8RP, United Kingdom; and Endocrinology Unit (M.R.G.), Clementino Fraga Filho University Hospital, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rua Professor Rodolpho Paulo Rocco, Ilha do Fundaõ, Rio de Janeiro 21941–913, Brazil
                Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Republic of Ireland
                St Bartholomew's Hospital, London, United Kingdom
                Barts and The London School of Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom
                Szent Imre Egyeteni Oktatókórház, Budapest, Hungary
                University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom
                Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom
                Hospital de Sant Pau, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
                Kings College Hospital National Health Service Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom
                Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio
                Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania
                University College London Hospital, London, United Kingdom
                St George's University of London, London, United Kingdom
                University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan
                Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, United Kingdom
                Hospital Universitario “12 de Octubre,” Madrid, Spain
                St Bartholomew's Hospital, London, United Kingdom
                Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, United Kingdom
                Alder Hey Children's National Health Service Foundation Trust, Liverpool, United Kingdom
                Royal Free and University College School of Medicine, London, United Kingdom
                St George's Healthcare National Health Service Trust, London, United Kingdom
                University of Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany
                Meram School of Medicine, Konya Necmettin Erbakan University, Konya, Turkey
                North West Thames Regional Genetics Service, Northwick Park Hospital, London, United Kingdom
                Guy's and St Thomas' National Health Service Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom
                Imperial College Healthcare National Health Service Trust, London, United Kingdom
                University of Newcastle, Newcastle, United Kingdom
                Bab El Oued Teching Hospital, Algiers, Algeria
                University of Keele, Stoke-on-Trent, United Kingdom
                Royal Free National Health Service Foundation Trust, Barnet Hospital, Barnet, United Kingdom
                Birmingham Women's Hospital, Birmingham, United Kingdom
                Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom
                University Hospitals Bristol Foundation Trust, Bristol, United Kingdom
                University of Liverpool, Liverpool Merseyside, United Kingdom
                Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark
                Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia
                University Hospital Aintree, Clinical Sciences Centre, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
                Lister Hospital, Stevenage, United Kingdom
                University College London Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom
                University Hospital Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom
                Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, University of Manchester and Central Manchester University Hospitals National Health Service Foundation Trust, Manchester, United Kingdom
                Ribeirao Preto School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
                Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli, Rome, Italy
                St Bartholomew's Hospital, London, United Kingdom
                Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
                Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia
                Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden
                Sutton Hospital, Sutton, United Kingdom
                Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden
                Waikato Hospital, Hamilton, New Zealand and Waikato Clinical School, University of Auckland, Hamilton, New Zealand
                All Wales Medical Genetics Service, Glan Clwyd Hospital, Rhyl, United Kingdom
                Department of Oncology, University College London Hospitals, London, United Kingdom
                Elias Hospital, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania
                Luzerner Kantonsspital, Luzern, Switzerland
                Derriford Hospital, Plymouth, United Kingdom
                Northwest Pituitary Center, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon
                Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York
                Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science, Los Angeles, California
                University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois
                Western University, Children's Hospital, London Health Science Centre, London, Ontario, Canada
                Barts and The London School of Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom
                Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary
                Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates, Boston Massachusetts
                Imperial College Healthcare National Health Service Trust, Hammersmith Hospital, London, United Kingdom
                Health Center, Hungarian Defense Forces, Budapest, Hungary
                Alder Hey Children's Hospital Eaton Road, Liverpool, United Kingdom
                National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London, United Kingdom
                Hospital Durand, Buenos Aires, Argentina
                Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Sihhiye, Turkey
                University of Cambridge and Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom
                Gyor Hospital, Gyor, Hungary
                University Hospitals of Leicester National Health Service Trust, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, United Kingdom
                Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
                Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom
                Barts and The London School of Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom, and Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli, Rome, Italy
                Faculty of Medicine, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary
                School of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
                Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Toskushima City, Japan
                Guy's and St Thomas' Foundation Trust, Guy's Hospital, London, United Kingdom
                Mediscan, Chennai, India
                Laiko General Hospital, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece
                Lister Hospital, Stevenage, United Kingdom
                Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolism, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom
                University Hospital Zagreb, and School of Medicine University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia
                Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
                Greater Manchester Neurosciences Centre, Salford Royal Foundation Trust, Manchester, United Kingdom
                University College London, London, United Kingdom
                King Edward Memorial Hospital for Women, Subiaco, Australia
                Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania
                Flór Ferenc Hospital, Kistarcsa, Hungary
                Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, United Kingdom
                Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts
                Tupper Research Institute, Tufts Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts
                University Hospitals of Leicester National Health Service Trust, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, United Kingdom
                Polish Mother's Memorial Hospital-Research Institute, and Medical University, Lodz, Poland
                Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts
                University of Brisbaine, Brisbaine, Australia
                Teikyo University, Tokyo, Japan
                Guy's and St Thomas' Foundation Trust, St Thomas' Hospital, London, United Kingdom
                Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, Republic of Ireland
                Clinical Center of Vojvodina and Medical Faculty, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia
                Hospital de Especialidades Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico City, Mexico
                Faculty of Medicine, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary
                Clinical Center of Serbia and Medical Faculty, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
                Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
                Hospital das Clinicas, Minas Gerais Federal University, Belo Horizonte, Brazil
                Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois
                St Bartholomew's Hospital, London, United Kingdom
                The Ipswich Hospital, Ipswich, United Kingdom
                Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Belfast, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom
                Pinderfields Hospital, Yorkshire, United Kingdom, and Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, United Kingdom
                Leeds Teaching Hospitals National Health Service Trust, St James's University Hospital, Leeds, United Kingdom
                Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania
                Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
                Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts
                School of Medicine and Biomedical Science, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom
                Watford Hospital, Watford, United Kingdom
                Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds, United Kingdom
                University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Tirgu-Mures, Romania
                Semmelweis University, Budapest, and Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary
                Queen Margaret Hospital, Fife, United Kingdom
                Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, United Kingdom
                University of Milan, and Istituto Auxologico Italiano Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Milan, Italy
                University Medical Center Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
                Clinical Center of Serbia and Medical Faculty, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
                South Australia Pathology at the Women's and Children's Hospital, North Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
                The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London, United Kingdom
                Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, West Australia, Australia
                Institute of Genetic Medicine, University of Newcastle on Tyne, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle, United Kingdom
                Barts and The London School of Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom
                University of Warwick, Warwick, United Kingdom
                Hospital das Clinicas, Minas Gerais Federal University, Belo Horizonte, Brazil
                Wiinipeg University, Winnipeg, Canada
                The John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom
                Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland
                Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität, Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany
                Churchill Hospital, Oxford University Hospitals National Health Service Trust, Oxford, United Kingdom
                Chelsea and Westminster Hospital National Health Service Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom
                Hospital das Clinicas, Minas Gerais Federal University, Belo Horizonte, Brazil
                National Hospital of Sri Lanka, Colombo, Sri Lanka
                Fondazione Cà Granda Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico Ospedale Maggiore, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
                Endocrine Clinic, San Clemente, California
                The London Centre for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children National Health Service Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom
                University Hospital Birmingham, and Birmingham Women's Hospital, Birmingham, United Kingdom
                Barts and The London School of Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom
                Charite Campus Mitte, Berlin, Germany
                Santa Maria Nuova Hospital and Research Institute, Reggio-Emilia, Italy
                Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Norwich, United Kingdom
                University of Oxford, Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolism, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom
                Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide, Australia
                Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Republic of Ireland
                University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia
                Faculty of Medicine, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary
                The Christie National Health Service Foundation Trust, Manchester, United Kingdom
                Evangelismos Hospital, Athens, Greece
                Evangelismos Hospital, Athens, Greece
                Szolnok Hospital, Szolnok, Hungary
                Great Western Hospitals National Health Service Foundation Trust, Swindon, United Kingdom
                Institute of Endocrinology, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania
                Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolism, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom
                Hospital Sant Pau, Centre for Biomedical Research on Rare Diseases, (Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Raras Unit 747); Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
                Liverpool Women's National Health Service Foundation Trust, Liverpool, United Kingdom
                Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan
                Istanbul University, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey
                The London Clinic, London, United Kingdom
                Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima City, Japan
                Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
                Author notes
                Address all correspondence and requests for reprints to: Márta Korbonits, MD, PhD, Professor of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Centre for Endocrinology, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ, United Kingdom. E-mail: m.korbonits@ 123456qmul.ac.uk .
                Article
                15-1869
                10.1210/jc.2015-1869
                4570169
                26186299
                Copyright © 2015 by the Endocrine Society

                This article has been published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY; https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Copyright for this article is retained by the author(s).

                Product
                Categories
                16
                11
                10
                JCEM Online: Advances in Genetics

                Endocrinology & Diabetes

                Comments

                Comment on this article