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      Serum visinin-like protein-1 in concussed professional ice hockey players

      Brain Injury

      Informa UK Ltd.

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          The neuropathology and neurobiology of traumatic brain injury.

          The acute and long-term consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI) have received increased attention in recent years. In this Review, we discuss the neuropathology and neural mechanisms associated with TBI, drawing on findings from sports-induced TBI in athletes, in whom acute TBI damages axons and elicits both regenerative and degenerative tissue responses in the brain and in whom repeated concussions may initiate a long-term neurodegenerative process called dementia pugilistica or chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). We also consider how the neuropathology and neurobiology of CTE in many ways resembles other neurodegenerative illnesses such as Alzheimer's disease, particularly with respect to mismetabolism and aggregation of tau, β-amyloid, and TDP-43. Finally, we explore how translational research in animal models of acceleration/deceleration types of injury relevant for concussion together with clinical studies employing imaging and biochemical markers may further elucidate the neurobiology of TBI and CTE. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Increased CSF Levels of Phosphorylated Neurofilament Heavy Protein following Bout in Amateur Boxers

            Introduction Diagnosis of mild TBI is hampered by the lack of imaging or biochemical measurements for identifying or quantifying mild TBI in a clinical setting. We have previously shown increased biomarker levels of protein reflecting axonal (neurofilament light protein and tau) and glial (GFAP and S-100B) damage in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after a boxing bout. The aims of this study were to find other biomarkers of mild TBI, which may help clinicians diagnose and monitor mild TBI, and to calculate the role of APOE ε4 allele genotype which has been associated with poor outcome after TBI. Materials and Methods Thirty amateur boxers with a minimum of 45 bouts and 25 non-boxing matched controls were included in a prospective cohort study. CSF and blood were collected at one occasion between 1 and 6 days after a bout, and after a rest period for at least 14 days (follow up). The controls were tested once. CSF levels of neurofilament heavy (pNFH), amyloid precursor proteins (sAPPα and sAPPβ), ApoE and ApoA1 were analyzed. In blood, plasma levels of Aβ42 and ApoE genotype were analyzed. Results CSF levels of pNFH were significantly increased between 1 and 6 days after boxing as compared with controls (p<0.001). The concentrations decreased at follow up but were still significantly increased compared to controls (p = 0.018). CSF pNFH concentrations correlated with NFL (r =  0.57 after bout and 0.64 at follow up, p<0.001). No significant change was found in the other biomarkers, as compared to controls. Boxers carrying the APOE ε4 allele had similar biomarker concentrations as non-carriers. Conclusions Subconcussive repetitive trauma in amateur boxing causes a mild TBI that may be diagnosed by CSF analysis of pNFH, even without unconsciousness or concussion symptoms. Possession of the APOE ε4 allele was not found to influence biomarker levels after acute TBI.
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              The neuronal Ca2+ sensor protein visinin-like protein-1 is expressed in pancreatic islets and regulates insulin secretion.

               Yi Zhang,  Youhou Kang,  F Dai (2006)
              Visinin-like protein-1 (VILIP-1) is a member of the neuronal Ca2+ sensor protein family that modulates Ca2+-dependent cell signaling events. VILIP-1, which is expressed primarily in the brain, increases cAMP formation in neural cells by modulating adenylyl cyclase, but its functional role in other tissues remains largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that VILIP-1 is expressed in murine pancreatic islets and beta-cells. To gain insight into the functions of VILIP-1 in beta-cells, we used both overexpression and small interfering RNA knockdown strategies. Overexpression of VILIP-1 in the MIN6 beta-cell line or isolated mouse islets had no effect on basal insulin secretion but significantly increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. cAMP accumulation was elevated in VILIP-1-overexpressing cells, and the protein kinase A inhibitor H-89 attenuated increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Overexpression of VILIP-1 in isolated mouse beta-cells increased cAMP content accompanied by increased cAMP-responsive element-binding protein gene expression and enhanced exocytosis as detected by cell capacitance measurements. Conversely, VILIP-1 knockdown by small interfering RNA caused a reduction in cAMP accumulation and produced a dramatic increase in preproinsulin mRNA, basal insulin secretion, and total cellular insulin content. The increase in preproinsulin mRNA in these cells was attributed to enhanced insulin gene transcription. Taken together, we have shown that VILIP-1 is expressed in pancreatic beta-cells and modulates insulin secretion. Increased VILIP-1 enhanced insulin secretion in a cAMP-associated manner. Down-regulation of VILIP-1 was accompanied by decreased cAMP accumulation but increased insulin gene transcription.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                10.3109/02699052.2015.1018324
                25955117

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