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      Differences in circulating microRNA signature in Prader–Willi syndrome and non-syndromic obesity


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          Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) represents the most common genetic-derived obesity disorder caused by the loss of expression of genes located on the paternal chromosome 15q11.2-q13. The PWS phenotype shows peculiar physical, endocrine and metabolic characteristics compared to those observed in non-syndromic essential obesity. Since miRNAs have now a well-established role in many molecular pathways, including regulatory networks related to obesity, this pilot study was aimed to characterize the expression of circulating miRNAs in PWS compared to essential obesity. The circulating miRNome of 10 PWS and 10 obese subjects, adequately matched for age, BMI and sex, was profiled throughout Genechip miRNA 4.0 microarray analysis. We identified 362 out of 2578 mature miRNAs to be expressed in serum of the studied population. The circulating miRNA signature significantly characterising the two populations include 34 differently expressed RNAs. Among them, miR-24-3p, miR-122 and miR-23a-3p highly differ between the two groups with a FC >10 in obese compared to PWS. In the obese subjects, miR-7107-5p, miR-6880-3p, miR-6793-3p and miR-4258 were associated to the presence of steatosis. A different signature of miRNAs significantly distinguished PWS with steatosis from PWS without steatosis, involving miR-619-5p, miR-4507, miR-4656, miR-7847-3p and miR-6782-5p. The miRNA target GO enrichment analysis showed the different pathway involved in these two different forms of obesity. Although the rarity of PWS actually represents a limitation to the availability of large series, the present study provides novel hints on the molecular pathogenesis of syndromic and non-syndromic obesity.

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          miRTarBase 2016: updates to the experimentally validated miRNA-target interactions database

          MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs of approximately 22 nucleotides, which negatively regulate the gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. This study describes an update of the miRTarBase (http://miRTarBase.mbc.nctu.edu.tw/) that provides information about experimentally validated miRNA-target interactions (MTIs). The latest update of the miRTarBase expanded it to identify systematically Argonaute-miRNA-RNA interactions from 138 crosslinking and immunoprecipitation sequencing (CLIP-seq) data sets that were generated by 21 independent studies. The database contains 4966 articles, 7439 strongly validated MTIs (using reporter assays or western blots) and 348 007 MTIs from CLIP-seq. The number of MTIs in the miRTarBase has increased around 7-fold since the 2014 miRTarBase update. The miRNA and gene expression profiles from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) are integrated to provide an effective overview of this exponential growth in the miRNA experimental data. These improvements make the miRTarBase one of the more comprehensively annotated, experimentally validated miRNA-target interactions databases and motivate additional miRNA research efforts.
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            Essential metabolic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumorigenic functions of miR-122 in liver.

            miR-122, an abundant liver-specific microRNA (miRNA), regulates cholesterol metabolism and promotes hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication. Reduced miR-122 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) correlates with metastasis and poor prognosis. Nevertheless, the consequences of sustained loss of function of miR-122 in vivo have not been determined. Here, we demonstrate that deletion of mouse Mir122 resulted in hepatosteatosis, hepatitis, and the development of tumors resembling HCC. These pathologic manifestations were associated with hyperactivity of oncogenic pathways and hepatic infiltration of inflammatory cells that produce pro-tumorigenic cytokines, including IL-6 and TNF. Moreover, delivery of miR-122 to a MYC-driven mouse model of HCC strongly inhibited tumorigenesis, further supporting the tumor suppressor activity of this miRNA. These findings reveal critical functions for miR-122 in the maintenance of liver homeostasis and have important therapeutic implications, including the potential utility of miR-122 delivery for selected patients with HCC and the need for careful monitoring of patients receiving miR-122 inhibition therapy for HCV.
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              Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is associated with altered hepatic MicroRNA expression.

              The expression of microRNA in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and their role in the genesis of NASH are not known. The aims of this study were to: (1) identify differentially expressed microRNAs in human NASH, (2) tabulate their potential targets, and (3) define the effect of a specific differentially expressed microRNA, miR-122, on its targets and compare these effects with the pattern of expression of these targets in human NASH. The expression of 474 human microRNAs was compared in subjects with the metabolic syndrome and NASH versus controls with normal liver histology. Differentially expressed microRNAs were identified by the muParaflo microRNA microarray assay and validated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The effects of a specific differentially expressed miRNA (miR-122) on its predicted targets were assessed by silencing and overexpressing miR-122 in vitro. A total of 23 microRNAs were underexpressed or overexpressed. The predicted targets of these microRNAs are known to affect cell proliferation, protein translation, apoptosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, and metabolism. The miR-122 level was significantly decreased in subjects with NASH (63% by real-time PCR, P < 0.00001). Silencing miR-122 led to an initial increase in mRNA levels of these targets (P < 0.05 for all) followed by a decrease by 48 hours. This was accompanied by an increase in protein levels of these targets (P < 0.05 for all). Overexpression of miR-122 led to a significant decrease in protein levels of these targets. NASH is associated with altered hepatic microRNA expression. Underexpression of miR-122 potentially contributes to altered lipid metabolism implicated in the pathogenesis of NASH.

                Author and article information

                Endocr Connect
                Endocr Connect
                Endocrine Connections
                Bioscientifica Ltd (Bristol )
                December 2018
                08 October 2018
                : 7
                : 12
                : 1262-1274
                [1 ]Fondazione Italiana Fegato – ONLUS , Trieste, Italy
                [2 ]Istituto Auxologico Italiano , IRCCS, Experimental Laboratory for Auxo-endocrinological Research, Milan and Piancavallo (VB), Italy
                [3 ]Laboratory of Onco-Hematology , Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
                [4 ]Division of Metabolic Diseases , Istituto Auxologico Italiano, IRCCS, Piancavallo (VB), Italy
                [5 ]Division of Auxology , Istituto Auxologico Italiano, IRCCS, Piancavallo (VB), Italy
                Author notes
                Correspondence should be addressed to D Pascut: devis.pascut@ 123456fegato.it
                © 2018 The authors

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

                : 01 October 2018
                : 08 October 2018

                microrna,mirna,prader–willi syndrome,array,obese,non-syndromic obesity,serum mirna


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