Ekaterina S Zubkova 1 , Irina B Beloglazova 1 , Pavel I Makarevich 1 , 2 , Maria A Boldyreva 1 , Olga Yu Sukhareva 3 , Marina V Shestakova 3 , 4 , Konstantin V Dergilev 1 , Yelena V Parfyonova 1 , 2 , Mikhail Yu Menshikov 1
Tissue regeneration requires coordinated "teamwork" of growth factors, proteases, progenitor and immune cells producing inflammatory cytokines. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) might play a pivotal role by substituting cells or by secretion of growth factors or cytokines, and attraction of progenitor and inflammatory cells, which participate in initial stages of tissue repair. Due to obvious impact of inflammation on regeneration it seems promising to explore whether inflammatory factors could influence proangiogenic abilities of MSC. In this study we investigated effects of TNF-α on activity of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC). We found that treatment with TNF-α enhances ADSC proliferation, F-actin microfilament assembly, increases cell motility and migration through extracellular matrix. Exposure of ADSC to TNF-α led to increased mRNA expression of proangiogenic factors (FGF-2, VEGF, IL-8, and MCP-1), inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6), proteases (MMPs, uPA) and adhesion molecule ICAM-1. At the protein level, VEGF, IL-8, MCP-1, and ICAM-1 production was also up-regulated. Pre-incubation of ADSC with TNF-α-enhanced adhesion of monocytes to ADSC but suppressed adherence of ADSC to endothelial cells (HUVEC). Stimulation with TNF-α triggers ROS generation and activates a number of key intracellular signaling mediators known to positively regulate angiogenesis (Akt, small GTPase Rac1, ERK1/2, and p38 MAP-kinases). Pre-treatment with TNF-α-enhanced ADSC ability to promote growth of microvessels in a fibrin gel assay and accelerate blood flow recovery, which was accompanied by increased arteriole density and reduction of necrosis in mouse hind limb ischemia model. These findings indicate that TNF-α plays a role in activation of ADSC angiogenic and regenerative potential.