Blog
About

8
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Red Blood Cell Fatty Acids and Incident Diabetes Mellitus in the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Context

          The relations between dietary and/or circulating levels of fatty acids and the development of type 2 diabetes is unclear. Protective associations with the marine omega-3 fatty acids and linoleic acid, and with a marker of fatty acid desaturase activity delta-5 desaturase (D5D ratio) have been reported, as have adverse relations with saturated fatty acids and D6D ratio.

          Objective

          To determine the associations between red blood cell (RBC) fatty acid distributions and incident type 2 diabetes.

          Design

          Prospective observational cohort study nested in the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study.

          Setting

          General population.

          Subjects

          Postmenopausal women.

          Main Outcome Measures

          Self-reported incident type 2 diabetes.

          Results

          There were 703 new cases of type 2 diabetes over 11 years of follow up among 6379 postmenopausal women. In the fully adjusted models, baseline RBC D5D ratio was inversely associated with incident type 2 diabetes [Hazard Ratio (HR) 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81–0.95) per 1 SD increase. Similarly, baseline RBC D6D ratio and palmitic acid were directly associated with incident type 2 diabetes (HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.04–1.25; and HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.14–1.35, respectively). None of these relations were materially altered by excluding incident cases in the first two years of follow-up. There were no significant relations with eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic or linoleic acids.

          Conclusions

          Whether altered fatty acid desaturase activities or palmitic acid levels are causally related to the development of type 2 diabetes cannot be determined from this study, but our findings suggest that proportions of certain fatty acids in RBC membranes are associated with risk for type 2 diabetes.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 51

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          The Omega-3 Index: a new risk factor for death from coronary heart disease?

          Low intakes or blood levels of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (EPA + DHA) are independently associated with increased risk of death from coronary heart disease (CHD). In randomized secondary prevention trials, fish or fish oil have been demonstrated to reduce total and CHD mortality at intakes of about 1 g/day. Red blood cell (RBC) fatty acid (FA) composition reflects long-term intake of EPA + DHA. We propose that the RBC EPA + DHA (hereafter called the Omega-3 Index) be considered a new risk factor for death from CHD. We conducted clinical and laboratory experiments to generate data necessary for the validation of the Omega-3 Index as a CHD risk predictor. The relationship between this putative marker and risk for CHD death, especially sudden cardiac death (SCD), was then evaluated in several published primary and secondary prevention studies. The Omega-3 Index was inversely associated with risk for CHD mortality. An Omega-3 Index of > or = 8% was associated with the greatest cardioprotection, whereas an index of < or = 4% was associated with the least. The Omega-3 Index may represent a novel, physiologically relevant, easily modified, independent, and graded risk factor for death from CHD that could have significant clinical utility. Copyright 2004 The Institute for Cancer Prevention and Elsevier Inc.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: found
            Is Open Access

            Differences in the prospective association between individual plasma phospholipid saturated fatty acids and incident type 2 diabetes: the EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study

            Summary Background Conflicting evidence exists regarding the association between saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and type 2 diabetes. In this longitudinal case-cohort study, we aimed to investigate the prospective associations between objectively measured individual plasma phospholipid SFAs and incident type 2 diabetes in EPIC-InterAct participants. Methods The EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study includes 12 403 people with incident type 2 diabetes and a representative subcohort of 16 154 individuals who were selected from a cohort of 340 234 European participants with 3·99 million person-years of follow-up (the EPIC study). Incident type 2 diabetes was ascertained until Dec 31, 2007, by a review of several sources of evidence. Gas chromatography was used to measure the distribution of fatty acids in plasma phospholipids (mol%); samples from people with type 2 diabetes and subcohort participants were processed in a random order by centre, and laboratory staff were masked to participant characteristics. We estimated country-specific hazard ratios (HRs) for associations per SD of each SFA with incident type 2 diabetes using Prentice-weighted Cox regression, which is weighted for case-cohort sampling, and pooled our findings using random-effects meta-analysis. Findings SFAs accounted for 46% of total plasma phospholipid fatty acids. In adjusted analyses, different individual SFAs were associated with incident type 2 diabetes in opposing directions. Even-chain SFAs that were measured (14:0 [myristic acid], 16:0 [palmitic acid], and 18:0 [stearic acid]) were positively associated with incident type 2 diabetes (HR [95% CI] per SD difference: myristic acid 1·15 [95% CI 1·09–1·22], palmitic acid 1·26 [1·15–1·37], and stearic acid 1·06 [1·00–1·13]). By contrast, measured odd-chain SFAs (15:0 [pentadecanoic acid] and 17:0 [heptadecanoic acid]) were inversely associated with incident type 2 diabetes (HR [95% CI] per 1 SD difference: 0·79 [0·73–0·85] for pentadecanoic acid and 0·67 [0·63–0·71] for heptadecanoic acid), as were measured longer-chain SFAs (20:0 [arachidic acid], 22:0 [behenic acid], 23:0 [tricosanoic acid], and 24:0 [lignoceric acid]), with HRs ranging from 0·72 to 0·81 (95% CIs ranging between 0·61 and 0·92). Our findings were robust to a range of sensitivity analyses. Interpretation Different individual plasma phospholipid SFAs were associated with incident type 2 diabetes in opposite directions, which suggests that SFAs are not homogeneous in their effects. Our findings emphasise the importance of the recognition of subtypes of these fatty acids. An improved understanding of differences in sources of individual SFAs from dietary intake versus endogenous metabolism is needed. Funding EU FP6 programme, Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, Medical Research Council Human Nutrition Research, and Cambridge Lipidomics Biomarker Research Initiative.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Trans-palmitoleic acid, metabolic risk factors, and new-onset diabetes in U.S. adults: a cohort study.

              Palmitoleic acid (cis-16:1n-7), which is produced by endogenous fat synthesis, has been linked to both beneficial and deleterious metabolic effects, potentially confounded by diverse determinants and tissue sources of endogenous production. Trans-palmitoleate (trans-16:1n-7) represents a distinctly exogenous source of 16:1n-7, unconfounded by endogenous synthesis or its determinants, that may be uniquely informative. To investigate whether circulating trans-palmitoleate is independently related to lower metabolic risk and incident type 2 diabetes. Prospective cohort study from 1992 to 2006. Four U.S. communities. 3736 adults in the Cardiovascular Health Study. Anthropometric characteristics and levels of plasma phospholipid fatty acids, blood lipids, inflammatory markers, and glucose-insulin measured at baseline in 1992 and dietary habits measured 3 years earlier. Multivariate-adjusted models were used to investigate how demographic, clinical, and lifestyle factors independently related to plasma phospholipid trans-palmitoleate; how trans-palmitoleate related to major metabolic risk factors; and how trans-palmitoleate related to new-onset diabetes (304 incident cases). Findings were validated for metabolic risk factors in an independent cohort of 327 women. In multivariate analyses, whole-fat dairy consumption was most strongly associated with higher trans-palmitoleate levels. Higher trans-palmitoleate levels were associated with slightly lower adiposity and, independently, with higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (1.9% across quintiles; P = 0.040), lower triglyceride levels (-19.0%; P < 0.001), a lower total cholesterol-HDL cholesterol ratio (-4.7%; P < 0.001), lower C-reactive protein levels (-13.8%; P = 0.05), and lower insulin resistance (-16.7%, P < 0.001). Trans-palmitoleate was also associated with a substantially lower incidence of diabetes, with multivariate hazard ratios of 0.41 (95% CI, 0.27 to 0.64) and 0.38 (CI, 0.24 to 0.62) in quintiles 4 and 5 versus quintile 1 (P for trend < 0.001). Findings were independent of estimated dairy consumption or other fatty acid dairy biomarkers. Protective associations with metabolic risk factors were confirmed in the validation cohort. Results could be affected by measurement error or residual confounding. Circulating trans-palmitoleate is associated with lower insulin resistance, presence of atherogenic dyslipidemia, and incident diabetes. Our findings may explain previously observed metabolic benefits of dairy consumption and support the need for detailed further experimental and clinical investigation. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases of the National Institutes of Health.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                16 February 2016
                2016
                : 11
                : 2
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, and OmegaQuant Analytics, LLC, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, United States of America
                [2 ]Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, United States of America
                [3 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, United States of America
                [4 ]HealthPartners Foundation for Education and Research, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America
                [5 ]Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States of America
                [6 ]Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, United States of America
                German Diabetes Center, Leibniz Center for Diabetes Research at Heinrich Heine University Duesseldorf, GERMANY
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: WSH is the President of OmegaQuant Analytics, LLC and an employee of Health Diagnostic Laboratory, Inc. (HDL), two laboratories that offer blood fatty acid testing; the former for researchers and the latter for clinicians. JVP is an employee of HDL. None of the other authors have any potential conflicts to disclose. This does not alter the authors' adherence to PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: WSH JVP MAE JGR. Performed the experiments: WSH MAE JGR. Analyzed the data: JVP JL. Wrote the paper: WSH JL JVP KLM MAE JGR.

                Article
                PONE-D-15-22484
                10.1371/journal.pone.0147894
                4755935
                26881936
                © 2016 Harris et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 5, Pages: 17
                Product
                Funding
                Funding provided by National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, Broad Area Announcement 19. The sponsor had no role in study design, study conduct, data analysis or manuscript preparation. HDL, Inc. provided support in the form of salary for JVP and WSH, and OmegaQuant Analytics, LLC provided support for WSH as he has an ownership interest the laboratory. However, neither organization played any role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Biochemistry
                Lipids
                Fatty Acids
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Endocrinology
                Endocrine Disorders
                Diabetes Mellitus
                Type 2 Diabetes
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Metabolic Disorders
                Diabetes Mellitus
                Type 2 Diabetes
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Endocrinology
                Endocrine Disorders
                Diabetes Mellitus
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Metabolic Disorders
                Diabetes Mellitus
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Nutrition
                Diet
                Alcohol Consumption
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Nutrition
                Diet
                Alcohol Consumption
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Anatomy
                Body Fluids
                Blood
                Blood Plasma
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Anatomy
                Body Fluids
                Blood
                Blood Plasma
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Physiology
                Body Fluids
                Blood
                Blood Plasma
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Physiology
                Body Fluids
                Blood
                Blood Plasma
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Hematology
                Blood
                Blood Plasma
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Biochemistry
                Proteins
                Plasma Proteins
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Pharmaceutics
                Drug Therapy
                Hormonal Therapy
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Biochemistry
                Biomarkers
                Custom metadata
                WHI data are available to researchers via this website https://www.whi.org/researchers/data/Pages/WHIMS%20Data.aspx however some restrictions apply such as submitting a research and publication plan that is approved by the WHI Publications committee.

                Uncategorized

                Comments

                Comment on this article