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      The Effect of the Presence of Amino Acids on the Precipitation of Inorganic Chemical-Garden Membranes: Biomineralization at the Origin of Life

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          Abstract

          If life developed in hydrothermal vents, it would have been within mineral membranes. The first proto-cells must have evolved to manipulate the mineral membranes that formed their compartments in order to control their metabolism. There must have occurred a biological takeover of the self-assembled mineral structures of the vents, with the incorporation of proto-biological molecules within the mineral membranes to alter their properties for life’s purposes. Here, we study a laboratory analogue of this process: chemical-garden precipitation of the amino acids arginine and tryptophan with the metal salt iron chloride and sodium silicate. We produced these chemical gardens using different methodologies in order to determine the dependence of the morphology and chemistry on the growth conditions, as well as the effect of the amino acids on the formation of the iron-silicate chemical garden. We compared the effects of having amino acids initially within the forming chemical garden, corresponding to the internal zones of hydrothermal vents, or else outside, corresponding to the surrounding ocean. The characterization of the formed chemical gardens using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and scanning electron microscopy demonstrates the presence of amino acids in these structures. The growth method in which the amino acid is initially in the tablet with the iron salt is that which generated chemical gardens with more amino acids in their structures.

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          The emergence of life from iron monosulphide bubbles at a submarine hydrothermal redox and pH front

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            How important is tryptophan in human health?

            Tryptophan (Trp) is an amino acid and an essential component of the human diet. It plays a crucial role in many metabolic functions. Clinicians can use Trp levels in the course of diagnosing various metabolic disorders and the symptoms associated with those diseases. Furthermore, supplementation with this amino acid is considered in the treatment of depression and sleep disorders, mainly due to the Trp relationship with the synthesis of serotonin (5-HT) and melatonin. It is also used in helping to resolve cognitive disorders, anxiety, or neurodegenerative diseases. Reduced secretion of serotonin is associated with autism spectrum disorder, obesity, anorexia and bulimia nervosa, and other diseases presenting peripherals symptoms. The literature strongly suggests that Trp has a significant role in the correct functionality of the brain-gut axis and immunology. This information leads to the consideration of Trp as an essential dietary component due to its role in the serotonin pathway. A reduced availability of Trp in diet and nutraceutical supplementation should be considered with greater concern than one might expect. This paper constitutes a review of the more salient aspects gleaned from the current knowledge base about the role of Trp in diseases, associated nutritional disorders, and food science, in general.
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              From Chemical Gardens to Chemobrionics.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Langmuir
                Langmuir
                la
                langd5
                Langmuir
                American Chemical Society
                0743-7463
                1520-5827
                17 August 2022
                30 August 2022
                : 38
                : 34
                : 10538-10547
                Affiliations
                []Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-University of Granada) , Armilla, 18100 Granada Spain
                []Department of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada , Campus de Cartuja s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain
                [§ ]Instituto Carlos I de Física Teórica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada , 18071 Granada, Spain
                Author notes
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2589-9716
                Article
                10.1021/acs.langmuir.2c01345
                9434990
                35974697
                a9613f92-28e9-4557-95bc-b8e6c4a39c3c
                © 2022 American Chemical Society

                Permits the broadest form of re-use including for commercial purposes, provided that author attribution and integrity are maintained ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 25 May 2022
                : 03 August 2022
                Funding
                Funded by: European Cooperation in Science and Technology, doi 10.13039/501100000921;
                Award ID: CA17120
                Funded by: Consejería de Economía, Innovación, Ciencia y Empleo, Junta de Andalucía, doi 10.13039/501100002878;
                Award ID: P-18-RT-3786
                Categories
                Article
                Custom metadata
                la2c01345
                la2c01345

                Physical chemistry
                Physical chemistry

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